History has been defined as "a past of more than common interest." We hope that this revised History of Drumbo will prove such to all who may read it, and that it will fall into the bands of all lovers of Drumbo at home or abroad.

We think of certain people as "makers of history." That, in a little measure, at least, is how we think of some of those mentioned in the following pages. May what is here written serve to keep their memory fresh as well as preserve much valuable information.

The texts and mottoes enhance the hook. Their daily use should be a source of encouragement and an inspiration in the vicissitudes of life. Sincere thanks to all who sent quotations accompanied by contributions towards the funds of the Church. And a special "thank you" to the Rev. David Stewart, B.A., D.D., for his much appreciated help by way of information and suggestion, and for so kindly reading the manuscript.
Drumbo, Lisburn.
July, 1956.

'Midst wooded hills and rich farmlands
This church Drumbo has stood;
Through centuries three, 'mid changing scenes,
A witness to God's Holy Word.

This stately fate embowered in trees,
And lawns of golden daffodils,
Where banks of roses bloom in June,
Shedding around their rich perfume:
And nature in floral mantles gay
Greets the proud ter-centenary:
A setting worthy to adorn
This Fine historic church of God.

Where men of vision bore on high
The lamp of truth and loyalty,
And left enrolled undying fame
When they had passed with oriflamme
The opened gates beyond the sun
And there had heard the great "Well done"
From the Master whom they served.

The Tower, too, a Watch has kept,
In the background on the hill
Whose frowning bulwark challenges
Any untoward thing!
Historians might add a page,
Before their leaves are bound,
In honour of a duty done
On that ancient grassy mound.



The Parish of Drumbo is in the Barony of Upper Castlereagh, and is one of tte most pleasing parts of County Down. There are extensive and charming views from some of its vantage points, such as Braidujle, Tullyard, Ballycairn Hill, and The Back Hill. When Baronies were divided into Parishes and Townlands, Drumbo included twelve Townlands that were later annexed to Drumbeg. As it now stands, it comprises 9,629 acres, chiefly arable, with a small proportion of woodland. At one time there was a large tract of bog which is now cut out.

It is a district of much historic: interest, as we shall see, interest that stretches from pre-Christian times down to quite modern days. King William III, once visited the Court, Hillhall. This was probably on his journey from Carrickfergus to Hillsborough, and, although there is no record of it, he may have visited the Round Tower at Drumbo on his way.

Within its hounds are some things of much archaeological interest, which are worthy of note. There are several raths, i.e., pre-historic hill forts. They are generally circular, comprised either of large stones without mortar, or of earth thrown up and surrounded by one or more ditches. The most outstanding of these is on the summit of Tullyard, and is constructed of earth, loose stones, and vitrified substance similar to the cairns of Scotland. It is supposed by some writers that there was once a fortified town here.

The Giant's Ring, in the Townland of Ballynahatty, is one of the most important of its kind among ancient Irish monuments The stones lying around, disturbed from their original position, indicate that there was an avenue leading to the Cromlech. The enclosure, which is about six hundred yards in circumference, is not quite circular, though nearly so, nor is the altar in the exact centre. The sloping stone, which has slipped out of position somewhat, is almost circular, and is about one foot in thickness at the edge, but considerably more at the centre.

In a field to the North side of the embankment, there was once discovered an ancient sepulchral chamber covered with earth. Two little compartments within this chamber contained four urns of burnt clay, and were filled with burnt bones. One of the urns held two skulls and fragments of several others. In this same piece of ground indications of extensive interments have been noted, stone coffins found, which in most cases contained urns, and in one urn there were two stone arrow-heads along with burnt bones.

The area of the enclosure, which is a little over ten acres, has not been disturbed for almost a century. Indeed it may have lain fallow from the time, perhaps about 2000 B.C., when it is believed that the Cromlech was erected as the burial place of some pagan ruler. But in the early part of 1955 most of it was turned up at a ploughing contest by some eighteen competitors from all parts of Northern Ireland. Not long ago some hand-worked flints were unearthed during excavations. And in the hope of discovering more ancient treasures, Mr. Patrick Collins, of the department of Archaeology in Queen's University, spent the day at the site. The only "finds" which were reported to him, however, were a 1902 penny, a sixpence of even later vintage, and a piece of stone which might have been shaped by man or nature.

As to the use or purpose of this enclosure, history gives us no information, nor can we gather any from tradition. But these monuments were still respected at the time of the introduction of Christianity, and it is not unlikely that they belonged to a people whose institutions had long disappeared before the Christian era in Ireland.

In the garden of Edenderry House there is a funereal mound in which urns have been found. There is a tradition that the site of this house was once occupied by a church and other ecclesiastical buildings.


The Round Tower is the only remaining one in County Down. This fact greatly adds to its interest. There are many of them in Ireland, and the theories as to their origin and use are very numerous. They have been attributed to the Danes by some writers, while others have declared them to be of Phoenician origin. In respect of their uses, the following are some of the theories :-used as places from which to proclaim the Druidical festivals; fire-temples; gnomons or astronomical observatories; phallic emblems or Bhuddist temples; anchorite towers or stylite columns; penitential prisons, belfries, keeps or monastic castles, beacons, and watch-towers.

Quite obviously all these cannot be right, but there is good reason for believing them to be of Christian origin, and that in accordance with the uniform tradition of the whole people of Ireland. They were always built on church property, and were probably designed as watch-towers and places of refuge for the clergy and of security for church valuables. It is believed that they were built during the period of the Viking raids. Evidently these were attached to important places of worship, or where some special need existed. They were in close proximity to cathedral and abbey churches.

By way of proof of their Christian origin it can be stated that there is no evidence that the people of this island were acquainted with the art of constructing an arch, or with the use of lime cement anterior to the introduction of Christianity. In no building assigned to that time, either by historical evidence or popular tradition, have been found those forms or features usual in Round Towers. Indeed they have no characteristics that would indicate that their builders possessed sufficient architectural skill to construct such edifices. On the other hand, Round Towers invariably possess architectural features not found in any buildings in Ireland ascertained to be of pagan times.

On several of them Christian emblems are observable, and others display in the details a style of architecture that is universally acknowledged to be of Christian origin. They were designed, it is believed, for a twofold use to serve as belfries and keeps or places of strength in which the sacred utensils, books, relics and other valuables were deposited, and into which the ecclesiastics to whom they belonged could retire for security in case of predatory attack. Their architectural construction eminently favours this belief. They were probably also used when occasion required as beacons and watch-towers, and the perfect fitness of the Round Towers to answer such purposes strongly support this conclusion.

In the interior they are divided into storeys, varying in number from four to eight, according to the height of the tower. These storeys, usually about twelve feet high, are marked either by projected belts of stone, or by holes in the wall, to receive the joists on which rested the floors, which were usually made of wood.

In 1841 the interior of the Drumbo Tower was cleaned out to the foundation. There was an accumulation of rubbish seven feet in depth. Under a thin layer of mortar, the explorers found the skeleton of a man whose probable height was about six feet two inches. The head lay towards the west and the body extended towards the east. The skeleton was complete except the right arm and both legs from the knees down. The explorers believed that the missing parts had never been interred there, or had been carefully removed. The skull was well preserved, having an almost perfect set of teeth in the lower jaw. No vestige of a coffin or dress was observable.

The skeleton may infer that the tower was erected on a spot which had been previously used as a Christian cemetery, or it may simply indicate that some one of distinction had the honour conferred on him of having his, remains laid to rest within the tower.

Among the rubbish were large stones, a considerable number of them having marks of fire, as had some in the interior of the building. At some time there must have been very strong fires within the building, as the inside surfaces towards the bottom had the appearance of vitrification. The fire's may have been used for temporary purposes, and unconnected with the original intention of the builders.


In Drumbo a church existed at a very early period. Indeed it is one of the oldest religious foundations in Ireland. In the life of St. Patrick, which is contained in the Book of Armagh, the name Drumbo signifies "the long hill of the cow," which was translated into "Collum Bovis," a name by which the ancient church was known. Its the burial ground close to the supposed site of the ancient church was an abbey, said to have been founded by St. Patrick, and of which St. Mochumma was the first abbot. It is probable that he was not only abbot, but bishop, for the lands of the church of Drumbo passed into the possession of the Bishops of Down. St. Mochumma was, according to Aengus the Culdee, brother of St. Domengart, whose death is placed by the calendar of the four masters at the year 506 A.D. In the same calendar, the names of Luighbe and Cumin occur at the 24th July and l0th August in connection with this church.

Harris, in his "Ancient and Present State of the County of Down," published in 1744, says :-"On the hill of Drumboe are the ruins of a church, forty-five feet in length and twenty broad, and at the north-west corner of the church, twenty-four feet distant from it, stands an old Round Tower .... It is the opinion of some that there has been a small fortified town on the hill of Drumboe, and that the foundation of the wall is at this day easy to be seen .... Close to this church there has been a Presbyterian meetinghouse erected."

From all this the conclusion is borne in upon us that in this place men and women have worshipped God since the introduction of Christianity into Ireland. What a history we have here! For nearly a millennium and a half the old story of God's redeeming love has been proclaimed. This spot has been hallowed by the prayers of thousands, and eternity alone will reveal the numbers who have sought and found pardon here. The very thought of all this should deeply impress us. If Ireland ever was an Isle of Saints, then Drumbo had its share of them, and we can think of them from Mochumma downward, as looking over the battlements of Heaven to see how we run our race, and how we pass on the great inheritance of the ages that has accrued to us.


The site of this ancient church came to be the site of the Drumbo Parish Church. In the year 1622 it was described as a ruin. Who or what circumstances were responsible for this state of affairs, the writer cannot say. But in the Ulster Visitation Book it is stated as being under repair in that same year. Also in that year complaint was made that the twelve townlands of Drumbo, and the four of Blaris, had been let to Sir James Hamilton and Sir Hugh Montgomery by Bishop Dundas, at the yearly rent of 64. William Forbes is mentioned as curate in 1634.

The population as given in 1660 was small indeed. In Drumbo there were thirty-two - twenty-eight Scotch and English and 4 Irish. Ballycairn had 14-8 and six; Ballymagarrick, eleven-seven and four; Leverogue, five-four and one; Mealough, nineteen-thirteen and six; Ballylesson and Ballynahatty, twenty-ten and ten; Ballycairngannon, twenty-no Irish; Tullyard, ten; Lisnod, seven; Carr, nine-all Irish.

A subsidy roll (something like our income tax) dated August 1663 has the following names with their annual, payments:-James Graham, Drumbo, 4; Allan McIlveen, Ballycowan, 4; Richard Steele, Ballylesson 3 8s 9d; David Kennedy, Ballynahatty, 3 17s 0d; Thomas Johnston, Tullyard, 3 12s 6d; James Maxwell, Drumbeg, 3 10s 0d; Andrew Warwick, Carryduff, 3 10s 0d.

Henry, Earl of Clanbrasil, held from the Crown certain lands which included among others the following townlands :-Drumbo, Ballycowan, Ballymagarrick, Ballylesson, Ballynahatty, Edenderry, and Tullyard.

He leased Drumbo (1,274 acres) to James Maxwell for a term of five hundred years from 1st May, 1671. The lease, given as security for 500, was a conditional one, with the option of redemption at the end of sixty-one years. If the 500 was not paid in that time, Maxwell was to keep the land for the five hundred years. In these conditions the head rent was fixed at 20 per year. It was then already tenanted, bringing in an aggregate of 70 yearly.

Ballycowan (778 acres) was also held by James Maxwell in fee farm from Lord Clanbrasil, but no rent was reserved. Arthur Maxwell, the son of James, had a nephew by the name of Arthur Rainey Maxwell.

Ballymagarrick (964 acres). was leased to Thomas Bradley on the 23rd October, 1670, for fifty-one years, to commence on 1st November, 1673. There was a mortgage for l00 lent by Bradley. He was to keep the premises at - a yearly rent of 25 until the mortgage was paid, after which the rent was to be 35. A condition of the lease was to ditch and quickset the premises by twenty perches a year until the whole was enclosed.
Ballylesson (524 acres), Ballynahatty (257 acres), Eden-derry (122 acres) and Breda (496 acres) were leased to St. John Webb on the 4th October, 1672, at a rent of 7 19s 0d.

Tullyard (378 acres) was leased to Gavin Hamilton on the 28th July, 1674, at a rent of 8.

Hugh Montgomery, of Braidstane, in Ayrshire, afterwards Viscount of Ards, died in May, 1636, and was succeeded by his son Hugh, second Viscount of Ards. On the 6th October, 1639, Hugh granted to his brother, Captain George, a portion of land that he called the Manor of Drumbrackley, or Drumbrackland. It included Mealough (827 acres), Ballycairn (457 acres), Ballyaughlis (302 acres), Lisnod (240 acres), part of Ballylesson (containing 140 acres), Knockbreda (496 acres), Clogher (310 acres) and Duneight (416 acres). Captain George died in 1674.

He was succeeded by his son Hugh (commonly called Ballylesson), who had one son, Hercules, who assumed the name of Willoughby in order to inherit lands in Tyrone. He died in 1732 and left an only child, Ann Montgomery, who married Hector M'Neill, of Duruseverick, County Antrim. Hector died in 1738. On the 17th May, 1756, Ann sold (probably this only means that he was made trustee) to the Hon. Michael Ward (Lord Bangor is his successor) Justice of the Court of King's Bench, the townlands of Ballyaughlis, Ballycairn, Lisnod, Ballylesson, Mealough, Clogher, and Knockbracken.

She bequeathed her estate to her second son, Archibald. After her death in September, 1758, there was some litigation between Archibald and his elder brother, Roger. This was settled in 1764 by Archibald getting a life interest in the estate. At his death in 1781 it reverted to Roger, who had a son called Daniel, and several daughters. Daniel married Jane Isaacs, and to discharge his debts he sold (after 1816) the lands of Mealough and Knockbracken to Richard Keown for 24,000. The remaining part of his estate was valued at a like figure.

The plantation of Down took place at the beginning of the seventeenth century by Sir James Hamilton, afterwards Viscount Clandeboye, and Sir Hugh Montgomery, afterwards Lord of Ards. As the settlers came from Scotland, ministers were brought over to look after their spiritual interests. To begin with, these ministers carried on their work in parish churches. Archbishop Usher drew up a confession of faith in 1615, in which he implicitly admitted the validity of Presbyterian ordination, and denied the distinction between bishop and presbyter. Thus it happened that men like Robert Blair and John Livingstone maintained a Presbyterian communion within the Episcopal church supported by its endowments. Bishops received ministers from Scotland and placed them in Episcopal churches. Even in the case of ordination, the Bishop acted simply as a presbyter. Had this state of things continued, there would have been one great Protestant Church in Ireland to-day.

The rebellion of 1641 and subsequent years overturned church and constitution, and in 1642 the long Parliament abolished Episcopacy, and summoned an assembly of Divines to meet at Westminster in June, 1643, to advise Parliament as to the new form of church government for the three kingdoms. In June, 1646, the ordinance establishing Presbyterianism was ratified by Parliament. After the Restoration, Episcopacy gained the ascendancy, and persecution of the Presbyterians began. The bishops insisted that the Presbyterian pastors should submit to re-ordination at Episcopal hands. With only a very few exceptions they refused, and so were driven from their churches. Happily, this state of affairs is long since ended, and the spirit of toleration and goodwill is firmly established in all the Protestant churches.


The first Presbyterian minister, as far as we know, to come to Drumbo, was Henry Livingstone, a nephew of the famous John Livingstone, of Killinchy, and a licentiate of the Presbytery of Dunblane. He was descended from a family that stood high in the peerage of Scotland. He was ordained-perhaps "appointed" is the word-in 1655. This would be in the parish church and presented by Cromwellian Commissioners.

In 1657, the Cromwellians, who were Congregationalists, would have deposed him, but the Scotch element was too strong, and so the Cromwellians gave in to the wishes of the people. In 1662 an act of uniformity was passed which required every minister to submit to ordination by a bishop. All who refused were deposed and forbidden under very heavy penalties to perform any ministerial office. Livingstone was one of many who refused and consequently ejected from his church.

For alleged complicity in Blood's plot against the Government in 1663, a number of ministers were imprisoned in Carrickfergus and Carlingford, and some, including Livingstone, in Dublin. After investigation it was found that only three of the ministers had known anything of the plot. After release Livingstone went to Scotland, but soon returned to Drumbo. Later he warmly espoused the cause of William, Prince of Orange.

In the minutes of the Synod of Ulster, vol. 1, he is mentioned as being absent from the first Synod at Antrim in 1691, being in Dublin; and as being present at the next Synod in Antrim in 1694, with James Spens as ruling elder.

After a ministry of forty-two years, he passed away in April, 1697, at the age of sixty-six. Several of the stones taken out of the first meeting-house at the present site bear the initials of his name. The Rev. Henry Livingstone, of Ballynahinch (1704-8), and the Rev. William Livingstone, of Templepatrick (1709-58), were his sons.

It is not unlikely that there was worship in Drumbo, according to Presbyterian custom, prior to Livingstone's day, though we have no record of it; nor have we any record as to the site of the first meeting-house. Some of the older people say it was in the Back Road, at a place which bears the name of Kirklands. It was probably erected about 1670, when, relying on the connivance of the authorities, most of our oldest meeting-houses were built. They were undoubtedly rude structures, most of them being rebuilt after the Revolution.


By a rearrangement of Presbyteries in 1697, a Belfast Presbytery was formed, to which Drumbo was assigned, and which ordained the Rev. Edward Bailie on the 13th June, 1699. This seems the correct date, though the tablet in the vestibule of the church has 1697. Mr. Bailie's name appears with Robert Chancellor, as ruling elder, at the General Synod at Antrim in 1703. He died after a brief ministry on June 27, 1703.

His executor, John Martin, appealed from the sentence of the Belfast Presbytery to the Synod at Antrim in 1705, in .connection with what it was alleged the congregation owed Mr. Bailie. To save the time of the Synod a committee was appointed to consider the case, and it was found that the parishioners had fully satisfied all the particulars which Mr. Martin alleged were due to Mr. Bailie, their late minister, except ten bolls of oats, which they engaged to account for.

His remains lie near those of Mr. Livingstone, and the following words appear on his tombstone :-"Here lyeth united to Christ the body of Mr. Edward T. Bailie, ordained minister of the Gospel in this congregation, June the 13, Anno Dom., 1699, who (working faithfully and with good acceptance and success, being while living highly esteemed and desired) died in the Lord much lamented June the 26, 1703, and of his age 30 years.


The next minister was the Rev. Thomas Cowan, who was licensed by the Antrim Presbytery and ordained by the Belfast Presbytery on March 29, 1706. In 1709 the vicar of Killead, the Rev. John Campbell, challenged some Presbyterian ministers in these words, "I desire you to produce a warrant from Holy Scripture for Presbyters ordaining or ruling without a bishop." Mr. Cowan sent an answer, but a considerable time elapsed before he received a reply in the form of a private letter. In 1711 he issued a book entitled, "The Power of Presbyters in Ordination and Church Government." Mr. Campbell appears to have retired discomfited from the field. Mr. Gowan was also the author of "The Religious Education. of Children" in 1712, and "The Necessity of Standing Fast by Our Christian Liberty" in 1714. This last was a sermon of forty-seven pages. He is mentioned as being present at the General Synod at Antrim in 1706, with Mr. Arthur Maxwell as ruling elder, and then with Mr. James McKee in 1707. His father, the Rev. Thomas Gowan, of Antrim, opened a school for Philosophy and Divinity, and published some books for his pupils.

Mr. Cowan ministered to the people of Drumbo for eleven years, and then accepted a unanimous call from the English church at Leyden, in Holland, but continued his relation to the Irish church.

In the library of Magee University College there is a Drumbo Session Book, covering the years 1699-1722. That was during the ministries of the Revs. Edward Bailie and Thomas Gowan, and part of the ministry of the Rev. Patrick Bruce. It would seem that they were very particular about attendance at their meetings. A minute usually began, "Present, minister and elders." Then we have this minute dated 21st March 1702, "Samuel Porter was accused of deserting the Session, James Willson to summons him to the Session." And this dated 20th February, 1706. "The same day it was appointed that the Session is to meet at the Drum at 10 o'clock in the morning, and none to be absent." In those days the Session dealt with cases such as usually come before the Petty Sessions Court. There are instances of two people having quarrelled about something, and the aim of the Session was to bring them together, get them to shake hands and be reconciled. In the case of some scandle or, misdemeanour, the guilty person was absolved if he appeared penitent; and sometimes they were rebuked and had to appear again when called, or the matter was referred to the Presbytery, and sometimes even to the Synod.

It is of interest to learn the names of those appointed to attend meetings of Presbytery and Synod as well as other leading members at that distant date :
Robert Davison, 7th December, 1701, at Belfast.
Alexander McClure, l0th October, 1703, at Belfast.
John Shaw, 7th November, 1703, at Belfast.
Joseph McKee, 1st June, 1704, at Templepatrick.
Robert Carlile, 9th July, 1704, at Carrickfergus.
Robert McKee, 30th July, 1704, at Holywood.
Other leading members:-Robert Anderson, Francis Cunningham, John Dunwoody, John Gowdy, John Graham, William Macartney, George Maxwell, James Nisbet, John Orr, Brice Smith, Patrick Scott, William Scott.


In 1066 Robert De Brus, a Norman knight, accompanied William, Duke of Normandy, to England, and for his services and devotion received from the conqueror extensive estates in Yorkshire. His son, who bore his name, was equally chivalrous and fortunate, and obtained from a Scottish king the district of Annadale in Dumfriesshire. Successive Robert Bruces occupied commanding positions in Scotland, one of them winning the battle of Bannockburn, and gaining the throne. There followed in this line the most renowned of all the Robert Bruces of Scotland. He entered the Ministry contrary to the wishes of his parents, and was in consequence partly disinherited. He was chosen by James VI to crown his queen. He suffered for strenuously resisting the establishment of Prelacy in Scotland by James I and Charles I.

Several of his descendants became ministers and served the church in Ireland. Michael Bruce, of Killinchy, who was more eminent than any of his descendants, was his grandson. James Bruce, of Killyleagh, an eminent minister in his day, was Michael's son, and father of Patrick Bruce, of Drumbo. Patrick was born at Killyleagh on the 11th April, 1692, and was ordained in Drumbo by the Presbytery of Belfast on the 12th June, 1717.

The General Synod, at its meeting in Dungannon in 1725, decided on a new arrangement of Presbyteries, whereby those of Belfast and Down disappeared, three new ones taking their place-Templepatrick, Bangor and Killyleagh. Drumbo was placed in the last mentioned.

In 1727 the Synod again met in Dungannon, when James Clark, from Drumbo, appeared, "Setting forth that it will not be for the peace of that congregation to be continued annexed to the Presbytery of Killyleagh, and earnestly desiring that this Synod may take such measures as may promote the peace and comfort of their congregation." Ultimately it was decided that Drumbo should continue in the Killyleagh Presbytery. And Rev. James McAlpine, of Ballynahinch, was appointed to go to Drumbo on the Lord's Day and read certain letters to the congregation.

On October 1, 1728, a call from Killalen, in the Presbytery of Paisley, to Mr. Bruce, came before the Presbytery. Agents for Killalen were Wm. Hamilton, of Ladyland (i.e., between Killinchy and Killyleagh); Robert Kyle, of Ballybeen; and Hill Hunter, of Newtownards. The elder from Drumbo was James Clagherty (Clotwortby). At a subsequent meeting on the 4th December, 1728, the call having been already placed in Mr. Bruce's hands, the Presbyery argued for and against. The elders from Drumbo, John Shaw, James Clagherty and Arthur Mellveen, demanded a determination without further delay. The Presbytery thought the matter of such importance that some time should be spent considering it. But the Drumbo elders said their instructions were positive. Mr. Bruce replied that he had hoped to live and die in Drumbo, but "of late years something unhappily fell in which gave a great check to his hopes, and gave him fears of being less useful than he could wish to that good people."

He accepted the call, and was appointed to preach in Usher's Quay, Dublin, for four Sabbaths. (Had he Arian views like his brother, Rev. Michael Bruce, of Holywood ?) About two years later he returned to Ireland and was installed in Killyleagh, in succession to his father, where he had only a short ministry, as he passed away on the 9th April, 1732. He was ancestor of the Bruces of Downhill, and great-grandfather of the late Sir Hervey H. Bruce, M.P. for Coleraine.

At the meeting of Presbytery on 31st December, 1728, Wm. Little was present as commissioner from Drumbo, seeking supplies of sermon, and at the next meeting on 29th January, 1729, Wm. Davison and James Thompson were commissioners for a similar purpose. In June, 1729, the congregation applied to the Synod for supplies, as there were no probationers in the Killyleagh Presbytery. At the same time they renewed their request that Drumbo should be put under the care of the Bangor Presbytery. This the Synod granted, with the stipulation that when it was planted it was to be returned to the Killyleagh Presbytery.


Thus it was that Rev. Andrew Malcolm was ordained by the Bangor Presbytery in Drumbo on the 27th November, 1731. Mr. Patton preached, Mr. Alexander gave the charge, and the stipend promised was 65. It was during his ministry that the church was either rebuilt, or the Livingstone one renovated and enlarged. Drumbo was still in the Bangor Presbytery when he died on the 2nd March, 1763. He left a widow to mourn his loss.


Mr. Malcolm was succeeded by the Rev. James Malcolm, who was probably his son. He was ordained by the Bangor Presbytery on the 24th December, 1764. He subscribed the confession of faith and joined the Widows' Fund.

Mr. Malcolm's health failed him, and at the General Synod at Antrim in 1775 there appeared Messrs. Matthew Rea, Wm. Shaw and James Carlisle, who produced a supplication, wherein they set forth that their minister, the Rev. Mr. Malcolm, hath been so much indisposed for two years past that he hath not been able to perform the duties of a Gospel minister, and as there is no prospect of his recovery, they beg this Synod would declare them a vacant congregation. After some discussion, this petition was granted, and some financial claims of Mr. Malcolm, which had to be settled before another could be planted among them, were fully met by the congregation.


At the General Synod of Antrim in 1774, a new Belfast Presbytery was formed. It was to include six men whose names are mentioned, together with such Probationers and vacant congregations as shall choose-presumably from the Bangor Presbytery. Evidently Drumbo decided for Belfast. In the following year, Hugh McKee, student from the congregation of Saintfield was present. He produced certificates from Glasgow College, and was admitted to trials by the Presbytery. He appeared again at Belfast on 2nd February, 1776, and subscribed the following formula,-"I believe that the Westminster Confession of faith doth contain all the important doctrines of the Christian Religion agreeable to the Holy Scriptures, and as such I subscribe it as the confession of my faith."

He was ordained in Drumbo on the 25th September, 1776. But only remained a few years, demitting his, charge on 12th June, 1781.


The congregation being vacant, a supplication was presented to the General Synod at Lurgan 1782, setting forth that as the General Synod had dissolved the relation between them and their former Pastor, Mr. Malcolm, on account of his then bad state of health, but as he is now recovered, they pray this Synod that he may be restored to the office of their stated minister. At the same time another supplication from Drumbo was read, praying that they may have a minister of their own choice, according to the rules of the General Synod, under the care of the Belfast Presbytery, and that a minister may not be fixed among them merely by rescinding the Synod's act of dissolving the former union between them and Mr. Malcolm.

A committee was appointed to take the minds of the Drumbo people on the matter, no one being allowed to vote whose stipend was not paid up to date. Mr. Malcolm was to preach in Drumbo on a previous Sunday. The committee met and found full unanimity for the instalment of Mr. Malcolm. They therefore installed him, and he was considered a member of the Presbytery of Belfast. He continued his labours here until 1794, when he was disannexed on account of indisposition. On October 3, 1805, he passed away, leaving a widow and family.


Mr. Malcolm was succeeded by the Rev. Samuel Hanna, M.A. He was born in Kellswater in 1771, and educated in Glasgow University, where he gained his M. A. in 1789. He was licensed by the Ballymena Presbytery in 1790, ordained in Drumbo by the Belfast Presbytery on the first Tuesday of August, 1795, and on the 11th December, 1799, installed in Rosemary Street, Belfast, which was in a run-down state, but under his ministry it soon revived. He was appointed Professor of Divinity and Church History in 1817.

From the very first his preaching was most acceptable. He was largely imbued with an evangelical spirit, and he was known in the courts of the Church as the assertor of orthodox principles. He was a warm supporter of the Sabbath School Society, and keen on the circulation of God's Word, permitting a portion of his house to be occupied for a considerable time as a depository for Bibles and Testaments. In the course of twelve months he received almost 1,100 for Scriptures sold at a cheap rate to the Presbyterian poor of the north of Ireland. He was also a strong supporter of Foreign 'Missions.

He lived to see a blessed change in the condition of Irish Presbyterianism. When he entered the ministry, Unitarianism occupied the high places of the Synod of Ulster, and otherwise things were in a bad way. He left the Church united in one body and furnished with a staff of Professors firmly adhering to the Westminster standards. When the union was formed in 1840 of the Synod of Ulster and the Secession Synod, he was the first Moderator of the Assembly.

He died in April, 1852, in his eighty-second year. There is a pamphlet in existence containing a sermon preached on the Sabbath after his funeral in Rosemary Street, by the Rev. John Macnaughton, M.A., and a funeral address by the Rev. Professor Gibson.


Dr. Hanna was succeeded by the Rev. James Riddle, who was ordained by the Belfast Presbytery on 3rd September, 1800.

At a meeting of Presbytery in March, 1825, a memorial was presented from the congregation of Drumbo, stating that from the state of his health, Mr. Riddle had become unable to discharge his duties among them. This memorial was accompanied by another from Mr. Riddle, stating that he was labouring under infirmity. The congregation and Mr. Riddle therefore requested the Presbytery to take the necessary steps to obtain leave from the Synod for the congregation to choose an assistant and successor to Mr. Riddle. In this same year Mr. Riddle was fined for absence from the Synod. He died on the 25th February, 1828, leaving a widow and family to mourn his loss. His son, Dobbin Riddle, died at Holywood on 12th May, 1844, after a painful and lingering illness, which was borne to the last with a high degree of fortitude and Christian resignation.

Two things during his ministry are of interest. When in 1804 the King having been graciously pleased to order that the Royal Bounty to Presbyterian ministers of the Synod of Ulster should be increased, and such increase to be distributed in a threefold proportion of 100 to each minister of a first-class congregation, 75 to those in second-class congregations, and 50 to those in third-class congregations, Drumbo was among the first-class.
For the year 1809 it is reported that Drumbo contributed 45 3s 6d to the Synod's Bible Fund, of which Dr. Hanna was convener-thus taking sixth place in the amount contributed by congregations for that year.

It was about the end of Mr. Riddle's ministry that the unhappy division took place which resulted in the formation of a new congregation, and a new meeting-house being built in the townland of Ballycairn. The following comment is taken from the Ordnance Survey, M.S.G., 1937-in the Royal Academy, Dublin, and never printed :-"Ballycairn meeting-house, 60 ft. x 40 ft., erected 1830, seats 400. Drumbo meeting-house, erected in 1750, very much out of repair-would seat all the Presbyterians in the parish, and might have been repaired for one-sixth of the sum it took to build the new meeting-house in an adjoining townland."

"It would appear that there was some bad regulation respecting the appointment of ministers for the Presbyterian Church, as a congregation, when they do not like their minister, enter into a subscription and cause the erection of another house.

"Thus the congregation is divided ,and it is frequently the case that both parties find (too late) their inability to meet the expenses of keeping in repair their respective meeting-houses. "


The Rev. Campbell Blakely, who followed Mr. Riddle. was born in the parish of Killaney, about 1796, the stirring events of the rebellion being among his earliest recollections. He was ordained on the 24th July, 1827. At the Synod at Cookstown in 1828, Drumbo was placed in the Bangor Presbytery, but at the Synod at Derry- in 1834 there was a new arrangement of Presbyteries, and Drumbo was placed in Dromore, of which Presbytery Mr. Blakely was Moderator in 1839-40, and again in 1855-56.

At a visitation of Presbytery in August 7, 1838, the session was represented by Alex. Swan, Daniel Drennan, William Robinson; and Dr. Muns, John Cunningham, and John Carlile represented the congregation. In the finding it is stated, "We have good reason to believe that Mr. Blakely devotes a necessary portion of his time to study and preparation, by the very excellent sermons that he preaches every Sabbath Day. He uniformly preaches the Divinity of the Lord Jesus Christ, and that there is no other way of salvation but in and through His propitiatory death and sufferings. He frequently warns his hearers of the threats held out in the Word of God against those who engage in those sins forbidden; and also declares the promises held out to those who abstain from them. Public Worship commences at 12 o'clock and generally terminates between 3 and 4 p.m. There are two services in summer and one in winter. We have about five hundred communicants in general attendance at the celebration of the Lord's Supper. Young candidates for communion are examined at least fifteen times before being admitted to the Lord's table."

The Banner of Ulster," dated 2nd December, 1842, contains a report of a splendid Tea Festival of which 620 People took part. After opening exercises the following ministers delivered addresses :

Rev. William Magill, Dundrod, "Presbyterianism."
Rev. Samuel Dunlop, Hillhall, "The sin and evils of intemperance."
Rev. Henry Henderson, "Controversy between the Church of Scotland and the Court of Session."
Rev. John Magowan. "Home Missions."
Rev. Hugh Brown, Carryduff, "Foreign Missions."
Rev. George Shanks, Boardmills; "The state of the Jews."

Mr. Blakely expressed his great delight at the pleasing and cheering manner in which the proceedings of the evening had been conducted. Singing part of Psalm 122 brought to a close an evening long to he remembered.

Mr. Blakely was a most diligent and devoted pastor. During the Unitarian controversy he proclaimed the whole Gospel of God with unswerving fidelity, and stood staunch to the truths that saves. He retired in 1865, and on Sabbath, December 1, 1872, at the age of seventy-six and in the forty-sixth year of his ministry, he passed away in the assured hope of eternal life, desiring to depart and to be with Christ.

It was during his ministry that the present schoolroom was erected. The old National School was built in the year 1836 by the people of the district, on a plot granted by the then landlord, Mr. Calwell, at the nominal yearly rent of one penny which was never claimed. In 1863 the estate was purchased by the late Robert Batt, of Purdysburn. The committee anticipating that the kind treatment they had ever received at the hands of Mr. Calwell, would be continued by his successors, they did not formally lodge any claim at that time. Thus they put themselves at the mercy of the new landlord and his successors for all time.

However, the committee was not interfered with in the management of the school until 1874. During a general election campaign Mr. W. J. Watson, accompanied by the Bailiff, appeared one morning at the school and demanded it for the purpose of holding a political meeting. A member of committee being present at the time referred Mr. Watson to a rule of the Board which prohibited the holding of such meetings in any school receiving aid from the Commissioners. The teacher of the school was afterwards served by Mr. Watson with a notice of dismissal, but the committee refused to part with his services, and were driven to the necessity of dismissing Mr. Watson and appointing another manager in his stead. They were then served with a notice to give up possession of the school. Refusing to do so they were finally ejected, and Mr, Batt entered into full possession of a house towards the erection of which he never contributed a farthing.

"The Morning News" of 18th February, 1876, gave this account of their ejection. "On Wednesday last the Sub-sherriff of the County, accompanied by the agent, Mr. W. J. Watson, and the Bailiff, appeared at the school. The children were summarily dismissed, and the work of disembowelling the school began in true earnest. The old forms, carved with many an urchin's name, were speedily deposited on the public road. The teacher's desk was dragged after them as unceremoniously as if it had been tainted with the leprosy of dissent; and the harmonium, occasionally uttering a gruff note of remonstrance, was conveyed to the shelter of an adjoining hedge. Then followed in quick succession maps and tablets, slates and pencils, clock and ink bottles, etc. The books were flung into a capacious hag and conveyed upon the sturdy shoulders of the bailiff to the nearest public house, and last of all, the very fire was '"ejected' and its smouldering embers thrown into a gutter on the roadside. Meanwhile the simple-minded people of the village ventured out of doors, and stood watching the proceedings with feelings of awe and wonder. "Old age forgot its crutch, labour its task," and all ran to behold the mighty doings of "the office," while now and then travellers passing that way stopped to make enquiry, and old men whose geographical knowledge had become deficient, were afforded the opportunity of examining the maps and tracing out the locality of the Suez Canal. At length, when the school apartments had been thoroughly gutted, and everything movable thrown out, the bailiff paused to wipe his heated brow, and the agent, Mr. William James Watson, stood and looked around him with the air of a conqueror. Their work was done. By this time the sub-sherriff and agent were moving away, and the onlookers expected that the bailiff would also retire from the scene and follow them at a respectful distance. But in this they were disappointed. After a brief consultation, the two former gentlemen returned, and the bailiff, who had imagined his toil was over. was ordered to commence afresh, and to convey the unoffending articles. now bespattered with mud and slush, back to their former resting-places in the schoolroom. When with the assistance of the teacher, who now declares himself only the servant of "the office," this work was accomplished, the interesting proceedings terminated, and the crowd of onlookers dispersed, wondering among themselves at that which had come to pass, and asking the ominous question,. "what next?"

Mr. Watson was then left for a time in undisputed authority as manager of the school. But not being resident in the district, and consequently not in a position to dis charge the duties of manager, the Commissioners decided to have a local manager, and suggested the Rev. W. J. Warnock. But Mrs. Way, the landlady and successor to Mr. Batt, would not agree, being determined to have an Episcopalian, and that in spite of the fact that of 70 Pupils, on the rolls, 65 were Presbyterians. The Commissioners then decided that grants be withdrawn from the school, and with their sanction the school was temporarily transferred to Rokeby Hall, where accommodation was kindly given by Mr. J. D. Dunlop.

The Committee of Drumbo congregation, alive to their responsibility in the matter of providing proper facilities for the educaton of the youth of the neighbourhood, decided to build a new school sufficiently large and suitable for holding the meetings of the different organisations in connection with the Church. Toward this they received the promise of 50 from Mrs. Warnock, and ;30 from "The DaySchools Fund" in connection with the General Assembly.


Mr. Blakely was succeeded by the Rev. James McNeill, who was ordained in Drumbo on the 7th May, 1867. His, memory is still fresh and will long remain so. After eleven years' ministry in Drumbo, he received a call to First Lurgan, which he accepted. Taking ill, he asked leave to withdraw, and was installed again in Drumbo, where he continued his labours with great acceptance until his lamented death in 1800 in the forty-ninth year of his age.

The following is from the Presbyterian Quarterly Visitor :-"The Rev. James McNeill, B.A., minister of Drumbo, died on February 18, 1890, leaving a widow and eleven children to mourn the loss of a most tender husband and affectionate father, and faithful pastor. He was a preacher of no mean order, and the beautiful church at Drumbo which was erected during his ministry and largely through his exertions, is a monument of his zeal and energy." It was a big undertaking for him and the people of Drumbo, but many friends came to their aid. Mr. John S. Brown, of Edenderry, was one of the first outside the congregation who gave a liberal donation towards it, and he laid the foundation stone. Others present at the important ceremony included, Revs. James McNeill, Adam Montgomery, and Messrs. William Cuming, John Campbell, William Martin, J. K. Miskelly, James Moore. It seats about nine hundred, and on special occasions congregations of well over one thousand have worshipped within its walls.


The next minister was the Rev. W. J. Warnock, who was born on the 14th February, 1863. He was licensed by the Rcute Presbytery in May, 1888, and ordained in Stewartstown on August 14 of that year. On October 22, 1889, he married Miss Lizzie -Briars. The marriage was by special license at the home of the bride's mother, in Scotch Street, Dungannon. The officiating minister was the Rev, D. Wilson, Dungannon; he was assisted by the Rev. J. Colhoun, Kilrea; Rev. C. C. M. Dickey, Draperstown; and Rev. G. A. Kennedy, Carland.

Receiving a call from Drumbo, he resigned the pastorate of Stewartstown and was installed in Drumbo on the 14th May, 1891. On account of failing health he went to South Africa. The climate seemed to agree with him, and he applied for leave to resign from the congregation. The hope of returning health was soon doomed to disappointment. His illness became worse, and he passed away at Kroonstadt on the 28th November, 1900, at the age of thirty-seven. A pathetic feature of the sad event was the fact that his wife and family arrived at Kroonstadt only two hours before his death.

When in health he was a good preacher and an earnest worker. He was beloved by his congregation, who sympathised with him in his work and failing condition of health. They did all they could to smooth his pathway and to make his life as easy and pleasant as possible He was held in esteem in Drumbo, and enjoyed the confidence and affection of his co-presbyters. He is still remembered for his own sake, and by the fact that his nephew, Mr. Samuel Hanna, of Ballycairn, and his niece, Mrs. James Campbell, of Drumbeg, are still with us.


The Rev. William McNeill, was a son of the Rev. James McNeill. He took his arts course in Queen's College, Belfast, graduating in the Royal University of Ireland in 1896, with honours in ancient classics. He studied theology in the Presbyterian College, Belfast, and in New College, Edinburgh. He was licensed by the Dromore Presbytery on the 9th June, 1899, and on the .16th November of the same year he was ordained in Drumbo, where he laboured with much acceptance for four years.

Receiving a call from Adelaide Road, Dublin, he was installed in that congregation by the Presbytery of Dublin on the l0th December, 1903. This ministry, which lasted for over nine years, was highly successful.
Oil the 22nd May, 1913, he was appointed to the spiritual oversight of Trinity Church, Claughton, Birkenhead, where he laboured with much success for eleven years,
when, for health reasons, he accepted a call to Rostrevor, and was installed there on the 27th March, 1924. Failing health compelled him to retire from the active duties of the ministry on the 30th September, 1930. After a. long and trying illness, which was borne with great patience and fortitude, he passed away on the 25th December, 1933.

Mr. McNeill was a man of outstanding gifts. In the pulpit he was equalled only by a few. Having heard him preach, no attentive hearer could ever forget his thoughtful sermons, delivered with such charm and manner. His children's addresses will be specially remembered not only as they were spoken, but by the little volume, entitled, "Come Ye Children," published in 1927. His literary gifts are well known through his other writings.

Had he been blessed with good health, his gifts were such as would have brought him the highest honours the church could bestow. In the long line of ministers at Drumbo, perhaps he was the most outstanding. All who knew him not only sympathised with him in his long illness, but deeply regretted the passing of one so richly endowed, and whose future was still full of promise.


Mr. McNeill was succeeded by the Rev. James Irwin, who was ordained in Drumbo on the 5th April, 1904. He remained exactly seven years, preaching his farewell sermon on the 5th April, 1911. A unanimous call came to him from St. Aidan's United Free Church, Melrose, Scotland. Later he was called to Newhaven United Free Church, Edinburgh. And after a few years there he became the esteemed minister of Dunkeld Cathedral. Now he is retired and enjoying a well-earned rest.


The Rev. Joseph Cordner was the next minister of this long succession. He was brought up in connection with Bellville Congregation. He was educated at the Presbyterian College, Montreal, and McGill University, Montreal, where he obtained the degree of B. D. He was licensed by the Montreal Presbytery in April, 1909.
He returned to Ireland and was assistant to the late Rev. Dr. Pollock in St. Enoch's, Belfast, for two years. He was ordained by the Dromore Presbytery on the 2nd August, 191 I, and was appointed to the spiritual oversight of Drumbo Congregation. After fifteen years of fruitful service he went to Canada, having accepted a call from Hamilton Road Church, London, Ontario. Later he was minister of Sherbrooke, in the Presbytery of Montreal. In 1930 he returned to Ireland, and on the 15th May of the same year he was installed by the Belfast Presbytery, and appointed to the spiritual oversight of Clifton Street Church.

Mr. Cordner was a most earnest evangelistic preacher, and an untiring pastor-devoting his whole energies to the work of his calling. When the call of the Homeland brought him back from Canada, he put all his energies into the work of Clifton Street Church. In season and out of season he laboured with a diligence almost beyond his strength. Just before the consummation of his faithful ministry, his health gave way under the constant strain; still he endeavoured almost to the last to keep in touch with his people by letters and personal communications. His courage never failed, and he bore his increasing weakness with truly Christian fortitude and resignation.


The Rev. J. B. Wallace, who succeeded Mr. Cordner, is the sixteenth minister of Drumbo. He was ordained on the 29th December, 1926. The Moderator of Presbytery, the Rev. A. Thompson, M.A., First Dromore, conducted the service; the Rev. W. H. Colvin, M.A., Cargycreevy, preached the sermon; and the charge was given by the Rev. R. Kelso, Second Boardmills and Killaney.

During these years a new manse has been secured, and electrical light installed in both church and manse.

The church has been well served through the years by its Session and Committee. The following are the names of those who held office at that time :-SESSION-Thomas Allen, Upper Ballylesson; T. A. Crawford, Belfast; T. J. Graham, Tullyard; William Innes, Creevy; William Magowan, Ballyaughlis; Hugh Shortt, Ballymacbrennan; W. R. Todd, Drumbo P.E.S.

COMMITTEE-Joseph Bingham, Clogher; Robert Carmichael, Leverogue; John Carlisle, Carr; Samuel Carlisle, Ballylesson; Alexander Crawford, Drumbo; T. G. Connery, Ballycoan; William Cuming, Ballymagarrick; Daniel Drennan, Drumbeg; Robert Ferguson, Ballycairn; John Gillespie, Ballycairngannon; Robert Hanna, Ballycairn; J. A. Harvey, Mealough; W. J. Johnston, J.P., Carr; John Lowry, Edenderry; William Macartney, Lisnod; Arthur Maxwell, Hillhall; William McBride, Ballymacbrennan; William McCormack, Hillhall; R. J. McCormack, Drumbo; Robert McMaster, Tullyard; James Robinson, Ballymagarrick; James Scott, Carr; John Shaw, Drumbo; Robert Thompson, Ballylesson.

It is interesting to record the names of some of the above who have well passed the allotted span and are still with us, men who gave long and devoted service to the Church :-Joseph Bingham filled the post of Treasurer for over thirty years; T. G. Connery was Secretary of Committee for a similar period; T. J. Graham was a member of Committee, and has been a member of Session for thirty-six years; Hugh Shortt, a member of Session, was precentor for many years, is still a member of choir, and was precentor at the old-fashioned type of Presbyterian service which was part of our Tercentenary celebrations, on the evening of 17th July, 1955. We return grateful thanks to these brethren, and pray that they may be long spared to come out and :n amongst us.

This history would not be complete if we did not record with gratitude the names and benefactions, of those whose love for Drumbo, was even unto death:-1858. Thomas Davison, Lisnastrain, 1 10s 0d yearly from trust funds; 1903, James Thompson Morrow, Ballymagarrick, the house No. 22 Apsley Street, Belfast; 1934, Miss Margaret Hogg, Belfast, l00; 1947, Mrs. J. McClure, Ballycoan, 500; 1954, Mrs. Mary McKeown, Belfast, 100; 1956, James Robinson, 700, and the residue of his estate to provide a "Robinson Memorial Organ" for the Church.

We also record with gratitude the following gifts :--1946, William Dorman, Drumbo, the very handsome gift of 3,000 towards the provision of a suitable church hall, which we hope will soon be an accomplished fact; 1947, D. Dorman, Belfast, 50. Other gifts include a beautiful Individual Communion Service, in 1925, from Mr. and Mrs. T. B. McCormack, Rosebank, Malone Road, Belfast, in memory of his brother, Campbell McCormack, who gave his life in the First World War. In 1935, Mr. and Mrs. James Robinson, Danesfort, Ballymagarrick, gave a much valued Pulpit Desk in memory of his father and mother. On the same occasion they also presented a handsome Pulpit Bible with Psaltery and Hymnary. Further, the late Miss Margaret McMaster, Tullyard, in her testamentary arrangements made provision for the Communion Table which we now use. The chair to match was provided by the choir as part of our Tercentenary celebrations; the Baptismal Font by the G.A., and the Flower Bowl by the W.M.A.

Time passes quickly and brings its changes as the present membership of Session and Committee show :
Session-J. V. Beggs (Clerk), Clogher; George Brown, Drumbo; J. Caldwell, Ball ycairn; T G. Connery, Sen., Ballycoan; W. S. Coulter, Ballyskeagh; William Cuming, Ballymagarrick; H. R. Currie, Drumbo; Robert Ferguson, Ballycairn; Thos. J. Graham, Tullyard; S. L. McIlvenna, Ballycoan; Ernest Patterson, Ballycairn; Hugh Shortt, Ballymacbrennan; John M. Thompson, Ballylesson.
Committee-Joseph Bingham, Clogher; H. S. Burgess, Carr; Joseph Campbell, Ballycairn; Wesley Carlisle, Carr; Samuel Carmichael, Leverogue; T. G. Connery, Jun. (Treasurer), Ballycoan; Jack Cowan (Secretary), Hillhall; Robert Crawford, Drumbo; John Cuming, Edenderry; George P. T. Davis, Drumbo; Cecil Graham, Tullyard; Samuel Hanna, Ballycairn; W. J. Johnston, Drumalig; W. D. Lowry, Drumbo; Kelvin McCormack, Ballyaughlis; R. J. McCormack, Drumbo; T. S. McReynolds, Ballylenaghan; James Martin, Drumbo; W. J. Miskelly, Drumbo; James Swan, Tullyard; D. Suffern, Drumbeg; Robert Thompson, J.P., Ballylesson; H. B. Wallace, Drumbo.

The previous edition of this history concluded as follows :-"There are further improvements occasionally spoken of by individuals, such as a Pipe Organ, a new Lecture Hall with suite of rooms, etc. Will these ever be realised? Or are they only the vain dreams on the part of the few? The future will tell." The passing of the years have told their own tale as this edition makes abundantly clear. All such things, however, must only be considered as means to an end. The great aim of the Church must ever be the extension of Christ's Kingdom, and such things are only of value in so far as they help towards that great goal.

In view of our great history, covering three hundred years, let all members keep this goal ever before them, and by consecrated lives ensure that the future will be even better than the past.