Ulster 1935
The official Publication
of the Ulster Tourist Development Association Ltd.


The County of Down.

  "The comely Ards, the pleasant Ards,
Dear land of little hills,
Of bosoming fields, of cresting woods,
Of twisting lanes, where spills
The humble wealth of buttercups
And meadowsweet and ferns ;
Of darkling bogs and Long-dry moss
Where the whin's gold glory burns ;
This is the Ards, the pleasant Ards,
Where the peace of God distills
From the cresting woods, the bosoming fields,
And all the little hills." � ALEX RIDDELL

AMONG Irish counties, Down impresses the visitor by its peaceful fertility and pleasant aspect. The undulating surface is frequently broken into series of little rounded hills, so that the area has been likened to a basket of eggs. On hill-top and in valley alike are frequent homesteads, the AMID THE MOUNTAINS OF MOURNEolder thatched and white-washed cottages of former generations steadily giving way to comfortable two storey houses. Down is sea-girt round two-thirds of its periphery ; the extensive sea inlet of Strangford Lough lies wholly within it ; Lough Neagh, the largest area of fresh water in the British Isles, touches its north-eastern edge ; numerous little lakes lie embosomed among its fertile hillocks, and so the charm of sea or lake is present almost everywhere. In the centre, its undulations are broken by a series of heathery hills culminating in Slieve Croob (1,755 feet) ; and the southern end of the county from Newcastle to Rostrevor, is occupied by the noble group of the Mourne Mountains, of which the loftiest, Slieve Donard, attains 2,796 feet. The little towns which are dotted over the area mostly share in the quiet which pervades the countryside. Belfast, growing by leaps and bounds, has acted as a lode-star attracting the younger generation and lessening the growth of many of the smaller places. But some of these, like Newtownards, Newry and Ban-bridge, have important factories of their own, and maintain a sturdy independence, The seaside resorts have benefited by Belfast's phenomenal growth ; the more the city increases, the greater is the demand for bracing atmosphere and open air sports, and so Bangor Donaghadee, Newcastle and Warrenpoint flourish on Belfast's increase, and prosper in the degree of her prosperity. Railways and buses transport the traveller to every part of the county, and the most distant places are now less than two hours' journey from Belfast.

In comparison with the average Irish county, the outstanding feature of Down is undoubtedly its general fertility. The slaty rocks of the SilurianBLUE SKY AND GOLDEN GORSE in the Kingdom of Mourne period which prevail have weathered down into a light friable soil, easy to work. Peat-bog, so prominent a feature of many parts of Ireland, is here at a minimum. In old days there was enough to supply much of the county with turf, but now it has all been cut away. The last remaining bog was the Cotton Moss east of Newtownards, and there a few traces still remain. Native woods are like-wise a thing of the past, save around the skirts of the mountains where oak and birch cling to their ancient home ; but an abundance of trees has been planted, so that many parts are richly wooded. Some two-fifths of the area of the county (which is 957 square miles), is under tillage, and about the same proportion under grass, the principal crops are oats, potatoes and turnips. Flax, once an important Co. Down crop, now takes a quite subordinate place ; the lovely bright green waving fields starred with blue flowers are no longer the familiar sight that they were once, and the Belfast mills now derive their main supplies from abroad. The rectangular flax-holes scattered everywhere along the streamlets and the frequent ruined small scutch-mills bear eloquent testimony to the decay of what was formerly a leading occupation.

Though Down is less than 50 miles long, it has a coast line of quite 200 miles, due to the deep indentations of the Loughs of Belfast, Strangford and Carlingford. The open coast is mostly low and rocky, and in spring is remarkable for its display of wild flowers ; thrift, sea campion, lady's fingers, bird's - foot trefoil, the rare little blue squill and other plants combine to make delightful natural gardens. Elsewhere, as on the Ards coast, around Dundrum Bay and at the entrance of Carlingford Lough, fine stretches of sandy beach prevail, beloved of the bather and golfer. At either end of the Mourne Mountains, near Newcastle and Rostrevor, the hills descend steeply into the water, and the main road slips through between the heather and the waves. The coast of the Ards, projecting further to the east than any other part of Ireland, is low, with dangerous reefs lying far out to sea, guarded by light-ships and light-houses, and passing ships give it a wide berth. In the north, Belfast Lough is the old valley of the Lagan, now sunk beneath the sea. It deepens steadily towards the open water, and forms a fine natural harbour of refuge. In the south, Carlingford Lough, on the other hand, has been deepened by ice action during the glacial period, and, in the manner of fiords, is deeper inside than at its mouth, which is strewn with reefs.

Down possesses little history distinct from that of the surrounding counties. It is associated with Antrim in many of the more stirring episodes, such as the rebellion of 1798, but one event of surpassing interest can be claimed by Down ; it was near Downpatrick�a place of note since prehistoric times�that St. Patrick landed in 432 A.D. He had spent some years of his youth as a slave at Sliabh Mis (Slemish) in Antrim, and now re-turned as a Christian Missionary to preach the new faith. These events are further referred to under the heading of Downpatrick. This place was also the centre of a conquest of a different kind, for Downpatrick was the first place in Ulster captured by John de Courcy when he set out from Dublin in 1 177 to conquer Ulster and bring the North under the dominion of King John.

The Belfast Lough Shore.
The whole of the southern side of Belfast Lough belongs to Down. While on the opposite Antrim side high hills of dark basalt, occasionally cliff-walled as on the Cavehill and Knockagh, impend over the water, the Down side is lower and undulating, very fertile, and from Belfast all the way to Bangor thickly dotted with demesnes and villas. Beyond Ballymacarrett, the Down portion of Belfast, and itself a considerable town, a large residential district extends around Sydenham and Knock.

Four miles down is The Holy (not Holly) Wood, as its ancient  name Sanctus Boscus testifies. Though now mainly a residential suburb of EVENING ON BELFAST LOUGH FROM HOLYWOODBelfast, this place has a long history of its own. A church was founded here by Saint Laiseran, son of Nasca, in the seventh century, and the place was called after him Ard-mic-Nasca, the height of the son of Nasca, later Sanctus Boscus. In the sixteenth century the church was bestowed on the Franciscans, who established a small monastery; here the site is marked by the ruins of a later church, surrounded by the older part of the present graveyard. The most unusual sight which Holywood offers is the tall Maypole at the intersection of the two principal streets�the only survivor, it would seem, of the maypoles which once decorated many an Irish village, especially within the areas of English influence. Beyond Holywood, a broad band of demesnes and villas stretches along the shore to HELEN'S BAY, where a sandy shore backed by a golf course provides an open space in a very lovely neighbourhood. Close by is the rocky projection of GreyHELEN'S TOWER, CLANDEBOYE Point, with a little fort guarding the entrance of Belfast Lough. A couple of miles inland is CLANDEBOYE, the seat of the Marquess of Dufferin and Ava, embracing lakes and wooded hills. On the highest summit stands Helen's Tower, named after Helen, Lady Dufferin, grand-daughter of the dramatist, Richard Brinsley Sheridan, and herself a poetess of repute. The literary associations of the Clandeboye of her day are shown by the verses dedicated to her or descriptive of Helen's Tower and the beautiful prospect which it commands, written by some of the most distinguished poets of the day � Robert Browning, Lord Tennyson, Lord Houghton, Rudyard Kipling. Browning's contribution, which like the others is inserted on the walls of the reception room of the tower, begins as follows :

"Who hears of Helen's Tower, may dream perchance
How the Greek beauty from the Scaean gate
Gazed on old friends unanimous in hate,
Death-doom'd because of her fair countenance.

Hearts would leap otherwise at thy advance,
Lady to whom this tower is consecrate !
Like hers, the face once made all eyes elate,
Yet, unlike hers, was blessed by every glance. . . .

Tennyson's contribution begins :

" Helen's Tower, here I stand,
Dominant over sea and land,
Son's love built me, and I hold
Mother's love engraved in gold,
Love is in and out of time ;
I am mortal stone and lime. . . .

Lady Dufferin's own contribution may well rank with these, and was dedicated " To my dear son, on his 21st birthday, with a Silver Lamp on which was engraved ` Fiat Lux.' "

The son to whom this poem was inserted had a career of which any noble mother might be proud. He was a distinguished and honoured diplomat and statesman, British Embassador at Paris, Rome, Constantinople, and St. Petersburg in turn, Viceroy of India and Governor-General of Canada, and in recognition of his services was created first Marquess of Dufferin.

Between Clandeboye and the sea at Helen's Bay is the pretty village of CRAWFORDSBURN, a favourite place of resort for picnics and teas. The beautiful fern-filled glen adjoining, belonging to Crawfordsburn House, can only be entered by permission. A couple of miles to the east we arrive at the important watering-place of

Now one of the most favoured and favourite watering-places in Ireland, it has a long and varied history, which divides itself into several very A GLIMPSE OF THE FINE BATHING POOL AT PICKIEdifferent chapters. First a great monastic institution, famous throughout Europe as a centre of learning and piety. Much later, a small town populated by English and Scottish settlers, busily occupied in the cotton manufacture; and finally, coeval with the appearance of the railroad and the motor car, a villa town, far-flung along the rocky coast, where bathing, golf, and entertainment have replaced the chanting of the monks and the rattle of the hand looms.

The first chapter is one of which the town may well be as proud as it is of the last�if two such different epochs can be compared in any way with each other�a contrast more startling than that which Thomas Carlyle expounds in his " Past and Present." The monastery and abbey of Bangor (Beannchor, meaning in Irish "the pointed hills," literally horns), was founded about 559 A.D. by Comgall, a priest who came of an illustrious family domiciled at Magheramorne, on Larne Lough. The establishment grew rapidly in importance under the care of Comgall and his successor, St. Carthagus, so that St. Bernard wrote of it �"a noble institution, inhabited.by many thousands of monks, the head of many monasteries, a place truly sanctified, and so fruitful in saints, which brought forth fruit so abundantly to God that one of the sons of their holy congregation, Luanus by name, had himself alone founded one hundred monasteries." For eight centuries Bangor was one of the most renowned religious centres in Europe, and sent forth missionaries, many of whom became famous, such as Gallus, after whom the canton of St. Gall in Switzerland was named, and the great Columbanus. But at length its prosperity ebbed, and in spite of the efforts of St. Malachy in the twelfth century, its fortunes steadily declined. Now all that remains on the site is one piece of old wall. An ancient bell and a bronze seal still exist, and in Milan is preserved a pricelessTHE TRIPPERS RETURN manuscript, the book of anthems used in Bangor Abbey in the seventh century.

The Bangor of to-day has developed, not around the ancient site (which lay about the present parish church), but mainly along the breezy, rocky coast around and far to east and west of Bangor Bay. The main shopping street is still the ancient thoroughfare that led from the monastery to the sea, but villas, boarding-houses and hotels extend, to right and left, for two miles, and for some distance inland.

The rapid growth of the borough is due to its favour-able position as a summer resort. Facing north, it is sheltered from the prevailing westerly and south westerly wind, and while on the left is the opening of the land-locked Belfast Lough, on the right is the open Irish Sea, with the low fertile coast of Wigtonshire glimmering in the sunlight only twenty-five miles away. Right opposite Bangor, the Antrim shore of Belfast Lough KEEPING COOLterminates in the precipitous headlands of the Gobbins and Black Head, on the latter of which a powerful lighthouse flashes its rapid beacon to passing shipping after sundown, or roars a tremulous warning when winter fogs lie over the waters. The coast-line on either side of Bangor, though not lofty, is sloping and rugged, and provides a highly picturesque shore line.

The hard slaty silurian rocks stand out in rocky points on either side of the bay, providing deep water which is fully utilized for bathing at the Pickie and Skipping Stone bathing pools. Half a mile eastward, Ballyholme Bay offers good smooth sand for those who do not fancy a "header," and provides an ideal playground for children, both juvenile and grown-up.

Situated only twelve miles from Belfast, with an excellent service of both trains and buses, Bangor has two strings to its bow, for it is a great residential suburb of the adjoining city as well as a resort for thousands of summer visitors. Owing to its rapid rise from village to watering-place, Bangor has not, nor never had, a congested town area. There is a happy absence of anything that could be called a slum, and the oldest parts are occupied by neat whitewashed cottages. Fully alive to the advantages of proper town planning, Bangor initiated a competition for schemes for its development ; the adjudicator was Professor Abercrombie, who holds the chair of Civic Design in Liverpool University, and the present lay-out of the sea-front and its future development are and will remain no haphazard arrangement, but a well thought-out scheme. That the rapid growth of Bangor calls for an organised scheme of development is obvious ; the following figures tell their own tale :�Population, 2,151 in 1871, now 16,000 ; Poor Law Valuation, �22,567 in 1900, now over �82,000, and increasing by about �2,000 a year ; bathing  (at Pickie alone), 30,000 ten years ago, now over 100,000. But the most important of all, the number of people who find health and happiness from a sojourn, whether long or short, in the sea breezes of Bangor, cannot be estimated.

Golf, too, is a sport which holds a foremost place here. In 1926 the Borough Council took over from the Royal Belfast Golf Club their links overlooking the sea at Carnalea. These were extended to 18 holes, and now make an ideal course of 5,447 yards. The Bangor Golf Club has
also an 18 hole course of slightly greater length, situated within five minutes' walk of the railway station. A third excellent golf course is at Clandeboye, a couple of miles away, ten minutes by bus.

As to bathing, Pickie provides everything except a sandy beach (for which one goes to Ballyholme). Here is a very large enclosed pool of all PICKIE BATHING PONDdepths up to 15 feet, with spring boards up to 33 feet above the water ; also open sea with another set of spring boards. There is space for 1,500 spectators ; if the weather is chilly the dressing boxes are heated by pipes ; and a cafe and music help to meet the demands of the most exacting visitor.

Bangor Bay, on account of the surrounding hills being of a uniform height, and the consequent steadiness of the breezes, is one of the safest boating and yachting grounds in the three kingdoms. Boating accidents are unknown. A very fine fleet of rowing, sailing and motor boats is provided, and boats can be hired on reasonable terms.

Yachting reaches its culminating interest in July, when the annual regatta of the Royal Ulster Yacht Club occupies two days. This event ranks with the leading regattas of Great Britain, and a long succession of famous yachts have raced at Bangor. King George V. and before him King Edward have sent their boats here, and in their time, the Kaiser, Sir Thomas Lipton and other famous owners. The Commodore is the Prince of Wales, and it was under the club's flag that the late Sir Thomas Lipton competed year after year for the America Cup.

Ample facilities also exist for sea fishing, either from rowing boats in Bangor and Ballyholme Bays, or from motor or sailing boats in the deeper waters of the Lough. Close to the shore, rock codling, flat-fish, whiting, blockan and conger (from the pier), are the principal varieties caught, while further out lythe, stanlock, gurnard and mackerel are obtained.

The Borough Council has been careful not to allow excessive building to restrict unduly the open spaces Which modern life demands, and several public parks supplement the ample Marine Gardens, which occupy the sea front on the west side of Bangor Bay. The largest of these is Ward Park, which has an area of fifty acres, in which are well laid Bowling and Putting Greens also eight hard Tennis Courts. At the Ballyholme end of the town adjoining the Seacliffe Road are four hard and three grass courts, in addition to Putting Greens.

Fancy dress parades for young and old are organised during the season, and carnivals, band promenades and fireworks displays are arranged at intervals. Visitors should consult the free Weekly Guide for details.

Unlike many resorts Bangor has seafront illuminations on an extensive scale from June until the end of October. The myriads of coloured electric lamps give Bangor Bay a festive and fairylike appearance.

GROOMSPORT HARBOURAs a centre for those wishing to tour Ulster, Bangor is especially well equipped, daily or extended tours being available throughout the summer months. Beyond Bangor, if we follow along the coast past Ballyholme Bay, we come to the old world village of a quiet  spot with good bathing, boating and fishing, and a picturesque shore, where sand and rocks intermingle. It was here on the 13th August, 1689, that the advance army of King William, consisting of 10,000 men, landed from 70 transports, under the command of Duke Schomberg. The present quay is erected on one originally built by the Danes. Further on, the road cuts across the base of Orlock Point and an extensive villa suburb leads to a resort of close on 3,000 inhabitants,

with a good harbour. This was a packet-station when the requirements of cross-Channel traffic were met by steamers A CORNER OF DONAGHADEE HARBOURmuch smaller than those now in use, the corresponding Scottish port being Port Patrick in Wigtonshire. Now-a-days cross-Channel visitors arrive at Belfast, which is only 22 miles distant, with ample rail and bus connections to Donaghadee. There is a beautifully kept golf links here, and the Council's recent purchase of sixteen acres of land south of the Pier, which has been laid out as a public park with a Marine Drive,Tennis Courts and Bowling Greens, has brought this bracing resort thoroughly up-to-date: There is also a fine harbour, which encourages boating and fishing. Donaghadee has the lowest rainfall of any spot in the Belfast district and is in consequence much in demand for day excursions, especially where parties of children are concerned. Situated on the coast of the open Irish Sea, with deep water adjoining, the bathing is exceptionally good. There is a fine bathing pool, with deep open water for those of a more adventurous spirit. There is also a fine stretch of sand from which safe bathing may be enjoyed. Good sea fishing is to be had, and rowing, sailing or speed boats are available for coastal excursions. From the Rath, an ancient earthen mound crowned with an old power magazine, and now a public park, a very fine view of the surrounding country is obtained, stretching from the Antrim Hills to the Mourne Mountains, and embracing a wide extent of the Scottish coast as well as the Isle of Man. The Copeland Islands, which are seen lying a few miles to the north, form a favourite excursion from Donaghadee. On the outermost low reef of rocks stands a powerful lighthouse. The largest island is tilled and boasts several comfortable farmsteads.


The main line of the Belfast and County Down Railway starts from Belfast southeastward down a fertile valley, past the great new Parliament Buildings, Dundonald with its high flat-topped Norman motte, and on to Comber, a busy little town with a famous distillery, weaving mills and, in the Market Square, a lofty monument to Sir Robert Rollo Gillespie, a dashing soldier of Indian fame, who earned a memorial in St. Paul's Cathedral. Thence a branch leads through Newtownards to Donaghadee.

is a town of close on 10,000 inhabit-ants, and a centre of all branches of the linen industry. Hand embroidery is also a chief source ofSCRABO TOWER and the shore of Strangford Lough near Newtownards employment. It is a starting place for excursions down the peninsula of the Ards, and the island-studded sea-inlet of Strangford Lough. Rising at the south end of the town is the high square tower of the Priory of St. Columba. A good deal of the thirteenth century work of the original church still remains and other interesting mediaeval relics in the shape of Norman grave-slabs may be seen at Movilla, whose abbey�now wholly ruined�was founded in 540 A.D. by St. Finian, who was connected with what in our day would have been a famous law-suit. He had brought back from Rome a copy of the text of the Vulgate revised by St. Jerome, and this manuscript was transcribed by St. Columba at Dromin, whereupon St. Finian claimed the copy, The matter was referred to Diarmid, King of Ireland, whose judgment became famous�" To every cow belongeth her little offspring-cow, so to every book belongeth its little offspring - book "� an early application of the principle of copyright.

St. Columba, however, managed to retain the copy, which eventually passed into the hands of the O'Donnells, who, in the eleventh century, had a beautiful silver shrine made for its reception. Shrine and book were some-times borne before clans in war-time as a sort of battle standard. Fortunately both survived this treatment, and are now deposited with the Royal Irish Academy.

The conspicuous hill of Scrabo rises steeply one mile south-west of the town, crowned by a lofty square tower. This was erected in 1858 in memory of General Charles William Stewart-Vane, 3rd Marquess of Londonderry, soldier, diplomat and writer. The hill itself is formed of pink sandstone, capped by black basalt, and its heathery summit commands fine views of Strangford Lough and all the neighbouring region.

The Ards peninsula
The district known as the Ards is the Peninsula 20 miles long running south . from Donaghadee and Newtownards, with the Irish Sea on one side of it, and the marine inlet of Strangford Lough on the other. It is a hillocky fertile pleasing area, with rocky points and sandy bays along the outer shore, and a general air of quiet rustic happiness. Until the advent of the motor car much of it was difficult of access, and the traveller had to rely on the old " long car " that ran down the inner shore to Portaferry. On this route, one passes, five miles below Newtownards, Mountstewart House, the residence of the Marquess of Londonderry. Here was born, in 1769, the great Lord Castlereagh, one of the best abused of British statesmen. There are beautiful gardens, and a small dolmen near the house marks the site of a remarkable cemetery of the Bronze Age, discovered in 1786, when below a cairn of loose stones sixty or seventy small sepulchral cists built of slabs of stone, each containing fragments of burnt bones and charcoal, and in the north-east corner an earthern urn, were discovered.

About two miles further on we reach the village of where in well-kept private grounds , stand the ruins of the finest abbey in this
GREYABBEYpart of Ireland. The place was founded by Affreca, daughter of Godred, King of Man, and wife of John de Courcy, the Anglo-Norman leader, whose name is so intimately connected with County Down history. It was built in the early English style, of pink sandstone from Scrabo Hill, a few miles away. It now forms a picturesque ruin, carefully preserved by the Government of Northern Ireland. It was in 1543 that the abbey was finally abandoned by the Cistercian monks who had occupied it for three and a half centuries. Subsequent delapidation appears to have been hastened by Sir Brian Phelim O'Neill, who, consequent on the handing over by Queen Elizabeth of his lands of Clandeboye to Sir Thomas Smith, destroyed every local building that might have been of value to the English.

Milisle, Ballywalter and Cloughey.
On the seaward side of THE ARDS, south of Donaghadee, interspersing the fine marine drive which runs almost to the apex of the Peninsula at Ballyquintin Point, are a number of charming villages and hamlets. First we come to what was formerly an old-world fishing village�MILLISLE�now an increasingly popular venue for bungalow dwellers. There are fine sands here, providing safe bathing and excellent facilities for young children. Sandy bays and good bathing can also be had at BALLYFERRIS POINT and BALLYWALTER, a resort extending In its popularity as a holiday centre. South of Ballywalter are the smaller villages of BALLYHALBERT, PORTAVOGIE and CLOUGHEY. Cloughey has a beautiful strand, and is a delightful resort for children. Close by at Kirkiston is a well-kept and sporting golf links.

At the southern extremity of the Ards the quaint little fishing town of Portaferry faces across the narrow entrance of Strangford Lough to the PORTAFERRY CASTLE FROM THE QUAYvillage of STRANGFORD. Portaferry is a pleasant place, from which the lower part of the Ards may conveniently be explored. A ferry connects it with Strangford, whence one may link up with the railway at DOWNPATRICK.

Strangford Lough.
Towards its eastern edge of the County of Down dips gently below the sea, and the myriad little rounded hills which are so characteristic of its surface become a series of little islands and peninsulas, with the sea water flowing between. The upper end towards Newtownards is shallow, and the extensive banks exposed at low water are a feeding ground for innumerable wild fowl. The lower part is deep and open save for the island-studded estuary of the River Quoile at Strangford in the south-west.

QUINTON CASTLE NEAR PORTAFERRYIn the south-east beyond Portaferry, the lough assumes a river-like form, which continues till the open sea is reached five miles lower down. Through these narrows a tremendous tide runs in and out. Twice every day four hundred million tons of green water rush up into the lough through this deep seething strait, and down again into the Irish Sea. When the wind is in the east and the tide is ebbing, the bar is a very dangerous place. The name that the Norsemen gave to this lough Strang Fiord, the violent inlet�is most appropriate. The Irish had previously named it Loch Cuan, the harbour lake. The islands of Strangford are of all sizes, down to mere reefs. The larger ones are farmed or grazed, while the small ones are a paradise for sea-birds, which nest in great numbers�gulls, terns, ducks of various kinds, oyster-catchers, ringed plovers and others. On MAHEE ISLAND, up against the mainland shore, near KILLINCHY, stand the ruins of the once important ecclesiastical establishment of Nendrum. The church was founded by Mochoe, a disciple of St. Patrick, so it can claim a very early foundation. The name of St. Caylan, first Bishop of Down, is associated with Nendrum, and in the twelfth century it was handsomely endowed by John de Courcy, already referred to. Within recent years the site has been carefully cleared and the ruins conserved, including the foundations of the church and round tower.

a few miles further south, is a busy little  town standing on the edge of the lough. De Courcy built a strong castle here, which now, rebuilt beyond recognition, is the residence of the Rowan-Hamilton family. Here was born Sir Hans Sloane, a famous traveller and London physician, President of the Royal Society and founder of the British Museum. He died in 1753. Killyleagh makes an excellent base for the exploration of Strangford Lough, and for sailing and fishing in these sheltered waters,

for many centuries a place of importance, stands on a hill half surrounded by the marshes of the Quoile, near the place where that river becomesQUOILE OLD BRIDGE, DOWNPATRICK tidal and a ford existed in old days. Situated in a fertile area in a position eminently suitable for defence, a hillock, a little west of the present town, was selected by some pre-historic strategist as the site of a huge earthen fort. It was long known as Rath Cealtair, or Dun Cealtair, the fort of Celtchar. This leader, often referred to in ancient documents as Celtchar-of-the-Battles, was one of the heroes of the Craoibh Ruadh, or Red Branch, and a contemporary and friend of Connor MacNessa, King of Ulster, a famous figure in early history. The name Rath Cealtair persisted at least until Norman times, for a charter of John de Courcy refers to Ecclesia Sanctae Trinitatis in Rath Kelter. The fortress was also known as Dun-leth-glas, a name of obscure meaning, and in this form ultimately gave its name to the county. Eventually the name of the patron saint was added, giving the modern designation of Downpatrick. The connection of the place with the founder of Christianity in Ireland is not clear. He certainly founded the churches of Raholp and Saul in this vicinity, and probably that of Downpatrick itself, and he appears to have been buried here, though there seems to be little authority for assuming that the actual place of interment was the spot in the graveyard beside the Cathedral from which for a long time pious pilgrims took away a little ST. PATRICK'S GRAVE, DOWNPATRICKof the soil, and which some years ago was covered by a great unhewn slab of Mourne granite with the Saint's name engraved upon it.

When John de Courcy in 1177 sallied northward from Dublin to conquer Ulster with a thousand men at his back, including twenty-two knights and 300 archers, he made for Downpatrick, utterly defeated the Irish under Rury MacDonlevy, King of Ulster, and established himself firmly here. He founded a Benedictine abbey, and it is recorded that he conveyed to Downpatrick church with great pomp the remains of Brigid and Columba, two of Ireland's most famous saints, and interred them beside the remains of their great predecessor, Patrick.

The place subsequently had a stormy history. It was sacked by Edward Bruce in 1316. The church was rebuilt, but in 1538 Lord Deputy Grey ravaged Downpatrick, desecrating and destroying the Cathedral. For this and other outrages he was executed. The Cathedral did not recover from this blow, and remained in a completely ruined condition till 1790, when rebuilding was commenced. Unfortunately the round tower that stood beside the church was removed for fear it might fall and injure the new structure. The Cathedral, as restored, is a simple building in the perpendicular style, constructed of the local Silurian slate. Above the large east window are nitches containing the effigies of the three saints referred to above, much battered at the hands of Lord Deputy Grey's troops. Some of the stone capitals, finely carved, are almost all that survives of the old building.

Downpatrick can boast some famous names among its ecclesiastics and townsmen. It has strong claims to have been the birthplace of Duns Scotus, the great philosopher. In the twelfth century Saint Malachy was Bishop of Down for twelve years. Five centuries later Jeremy Taylor held the same office, and in the last century, Richard Mant and William Reeves, both of whom did eminent work in Irish history and archaeology, held the Bishopric. Battles and burnings through the centuries have left very little surviving of the old Downpatrick. The town cross, restored from broken fragments. has been re-erected outside the east end of the Cathedral. Of de Courcy's castle, which stood near the present post office, and of the early Cistercian and Franciscan houses that existed here, no trace remains. The tower of the parish church near the middle of the town dates from 1177. Though still the county town, Downpatrick is now a small quiet place, the centre of a fertile rural area,
but it still forms for those of antiquarian tastes the starting-point for very interesting excursions, for stone circles, dolmens, old churches and castles proclaim the importance of the district since pre-historic times.

First, there is the great dun already referred to. It stands on low ground, but before the construction of lock gates near by, the sea flowed up every tide and almost surrounded the ancient site, and at low tide mud-flats made a serious obstacle, so the dun was better protected than might now appear.

On the other side of the Quoile stand the ruins of Inch Abbey (Inis, an island). The ancient name of the place was Iniscouscry, Couscry's Island, after one of the sons of King Conor MacNessa, who, himself King of Ulster, was slain here in A.D. 33. John de Courcy founded a monastery at Inch in 1180 and brought over Cistercian monks from Cumberland to conduct it. Though now much ruined, the buildings that remain display considerable architectural beauty.

Not far away is SAUL (Sabhal, a barn) where St. Patrick first preached Christianity in Ireland. The name still commemorates the site of this"GREEN PASTURES," FROM SAUL historic event�a barn placed at his disposal by Dichu, the local chieftain; here a small church was built, which St. Patrick often visited, and here he died in A.D. 493. The place had a chequered history, characteristic of early Christian times in Ireland. It was burnt by the Danes, rebuilt by St. Malachy, sacked by Magnus O'Eochhadha, King of Ulster, and again in 1316 by Edward Bruce. Now a small plain church of modern date occupies the site and around it fragments of older buildings alone remain to speak of its long history. It stands high, with a fine view in all directions over the fields, woods and waters of County Down. Other early Christian antiquities are also here the very early church of Raholp, with clay used instead of mortar ; St. Patrick's Holy Wells at STRUELL, once a place of resort by rich and poor alike for the washing away of diseases, and LOUGHINISLAND, where three churches of varying date stand on a long narrow islet in a pretty lake. Of prehistoric monuments there is also quite a number about Downpatrick, among the more interesting being the stone circle at Ballyalton, the larger one at Ballynoe, and the fine Lough Money dolmen.

Ardglass an important centre of the fishing industry , and a breezy, exhilarating place, lies on the rocky coast of Down, seven miles from THE HARBOUR, ARDGLASSDownpatrick, with which it is connected by rail and bus. Around Ardglass the coast is bolder than is usual in Down, and steep rocks descend into deep water. The harbour occupies a sheltered creek, with the street of the town rising above it, and is safe and commodious for the large number of herring boats of many nationalities which frequent it during the season. The Anglo-Normans, strongly established at Downpatrick, found this little port an important link in their sea communications, and built no less than seven castles at Ardglass for its protection. The place was later controlled by a trading company which established itself at Ardglass under a grant from Henry IV. Ardglass was then a corporate town and Royal borough, returning members to Parliament. Its importance declined until the advent of the railway, which facilitated the fishing industry, and also led to the "discovery" of the place by holiday makers who soon realised the advantages which its openA GLIMPSE of ARDGLASS from an ANCIENT RUIN position on the coast and breezy uplands confer. Places of accommodation sprang up, golf became a leading sport and the picturesque coast to north and south provided ideal rambles. In the midst of these modern activities there is plenty to remind the visitor of the bygone importance of Ardglass. Jordan's Castle, still perfect, and now a kind of local museum, derives its name from an Anglo-Norman family which settled here. During the Earl of Tyrone's rebellion in the reign of Elizabeth it was repeatedly attacked, but successfully defended by Simon Jordan, and eventually relieved by Lord Deputy Mountjoy. A few miles north of Ardglass at BALLYHORNAN BAY and KILLARD POINT there are
fine stretches of sand, beloved by surf bathers and picnickers.

The visitor will delight in the high grassy stretch south of the town, known as the Downs, where the golf course is situated. The views from this place, as from the adjoining hill, called the Ward of Ardglass, are particularly fine, embracing a wide stretch of sea to north, east and south, the Isle of Man, and grand views of the Mourne Mountains.

Killough, a couple of miles south of Ardglass, is a straggling village planted with sycamore trees and a small fishing harbour �a pretty and interesting place.

Especially to be recommended is the walk southward along the rocky shore to St. John's Point, the northern horn of the large bay of Dundrum. The coast is delightfully free and open, the rocks full of wild flowers and populous with birds. At St. John's Point a tall lighthouse forms a conspicuous land-mark. Thence a winding road leads westward along the shore and past the beautiful bathing strand at TYRELLA, and the extensive military camp of BALLYKINLER.

Dundrum, the wide bay of which mention has been  made, faces southward, and is almost wholly fringed with beautiful sandy beaches. From DUNDRUM BAY FROM TYRELLASt. John's Point the bay curves in a great sweep to Newcastle, where the Mourne Mountains rise steeply from the water. In the middle of the bay a narrow opening, with sand-dunes on either side, leads to the Inner Bay of Dundrum, a hammer-headed inlet stretching far to right and left with the village standing opposite the opening. The bay is shallow, with sandy and muddy flats beloved of sea-birds of many kinds. The high sand-dunes along the outer side, and the vicinity of the towering Mourne Mountains, make Dundrum a very picturesque place. On rising ground immediately behind the village stand the imposing ruins of Dundrum Castle. The hill was occupied by a fortress long before buildings in stone and mortar were known. A great earthen fort occupied the site, called in the ancient annals Dun Rudhraidhe�Rury's Fort, though who Rury was is not known. Later it was called Dundrum, meaning the Fort on the Ridge. In Anglo-Norman times one of the invaders�probably the ubiquitous John de Courcy himself�replaced the ancient earthen rath by one of the strongest of the many castles, by the aid of which the English held the turbulent local tribes in check. As late as 1539, Lord Deputy Grey wrote to Thomas Cromwell, Lord Privy Seal�" I assure your Lordship, as yt standyth (it) ys one of the strongyst holtes that ever I sawe in Irelande, and moost commodios for defence in the hole countre of Lecayle, both by see and lande." From the earliest times this has been an historic place. It was at Dundrum that the chief Bricrin "of the Poisoned Tongue" gave the great feast to King Conor MacNessa and the Red Branch Knights that is described in the ancient annals, and which had serious consequences. The building of the Norman castle was an event already late in the history of the place, and so important a stronghold proved a bone of contention for many succeeding centuries. Gerald, Earl of Kildare, wrested it from the Irish in 1517 ; it was captured by the Magennises, whom Lord Grey ousted from it in 1539 ; Shane O'Neill held it against the English in 1566, and Lord Mountjoy drove Phelim Magennis out of it in 1601 ; finally, it was dismantled by Oliver Cromwell in 1652. The ruins are still imposing and display well the lay-out of a Norman fortress�the massive central donjon, still 50 feet high with walls 8 feet thick ; the surrounding bawn enclosed in a rough circular wall of great strength with a deep fosse below it hewn out of the solid rock, and on the south side, much ruined, the barbican, flanked by towers.

The sand-hills, especially those on the southern side of the entrance of the Inner Bay, have yielded an unusual number of flint and other stone implements, derived from the sites of pre-historic settlements of the Neolithic or Early Bronze Ages.

Newcastle stands on a sandy shore at the eastern end of the broad Bay of Dundrum, between the dunes which stretch far to the left and theNEWCASTLE FROM SLIEVE DONARD HOTEL. mountains rising steeply from the water's edge on the right. Behind is well-wooded, pretty, undulating country and heathery hills, so that the pace offers an exceptional variety of beautiful surroundings. The town extends along the shore for the better part of two miles, and all the houses are close to the water. Half way along the main street a trout stream, the Shimna River, enters the sea. Here in ancient days stood the New Castle from which the town takes its name, built by Felix Magennis, head of a powerful local family in 1588. It replaced an older castle, probably on the same site, of which mention is made in 1433. Old prints exist showing it standing a hundred and fifty years ago or more, but its ruins were removed nearly a century ago to make room for an hotel. Newcastle has never been a centre of business or manufacture, and owes its present size and importance solely to its natural attractions, which are unsurpassed anywhere in the British Isles. At the southern end the houses are actually built on the steep slope of SHEEPFOLD IN DONARD DEMESNESlieveDonard,which rises from the water's edge. In the middle of the town, the parish church erected on a rocky knoll, rises conspicuously near the bridge over the Shimna River. At the north end is the railway station, and the very large hotel which the railway company has built in extensive grounds. Thence one steps at once on to the golf courses, which are among the finest in the British Isles, and extend far along the sand hills. The main street lies a little way back from the shoreline, with a broad wooded promenade constructed between, with pleasant walks and grass and shady nooks. Newcastle faces east, and, as easterly winds are rare save in March, trees grow almost to the water's edge. A chalybeate spring gushes out on the hill above, and is piped down into the town, where in a grotto near the church its medicinal properties may be tested. The sea is invariably calm at Newcastle, for the prevailing wind is westerly, the projecting foot-hills shelter it from the south as the great sweep of sand shore running to St. John's Point does from the north The sandy beach is shelving and safe, and for those who prefer a header, there is plenty of deep water, where the hard slates that lap round the granite mountains replace the shingle at the south end of the town. The swimming pool recently completed has added to the attractions of the resort, and over 33,000 persons bathed here in it first season.

The golf links are famous wherever golf is played. The main course has a total length of 6,490 yards. The wonderful beauty of the surrounding scenery is undoubtedly a great enhancement even to the enthusiast whose eye seldom travels far from the ball. Cecil Barcroft, well-known in the golfing world, has written :�" Everything is big at Newcastle. One stays in the biggest hotel in Ireland, an iron shot from the first tee ; a big mountain, the third highest in the land, rises at our back ; a big course stretches out before us�the grandest links in the kingdom�along theCASTLEWELLAN CASTLE AND LAKE shore of Dundrum Bay, big in length and big in bunkers." The ladies course, also of 18 holes, is satisfying to the most ambitious player. For those whose favourite sport is tennis, there are two clubs, and plenty of both hard and grass courts. Trout fishing also is to be had, both in the streams and in several lakes in the vicinity. Within a couple of miles two demesnes of exceptional beauty invite a visit. Tollymore Park, the seat of the Earl of Roden, lies close up against the mountains, traversed by the Shimna River, full of water-falls and deep clear pools, the whole set in ancient oak-woods with a wonderful undergrowth of ferns, and extensive woods of pine stretch up the mountain-side. Castlewellan demesne lies a little further north around the lake of the same name. It is famed among lovers of trees and shrubs for the fine collection of rare species which have been brought together here, many of them now of magnificent dimensions. The pleasant little town of the same name, picturesquely situated among rocky hills, stands close by.

The Kingdom of Mourne. For all devotees of walking and climbing, and for all lovers of natural beauty, the Mourne Mountains offer great attractions. They are easy of access, for Newcastle lies at the foot of the highest peak ; Rostrevor nestles among its woods, close against the hills at the opposite end ; half. way along the range on the northern side is the breezy village of Hilltown, from whence a fine mountain road leads southwards through the mountains to Kilkeel. Thus if we use these places as centres the mountains can be tackled from north, south, east or west. These mountains were formed by an upheaval in the times which geologists call Eocene. A vast mass of granite protruded from below into the slaty rocks which covered the country, and broke through them or carried them up so that their fragments are left stranded on the mountain tops. We have thus a great granite core, and all round the flanks the slates, altered by the proximity of the molten granite mass, lap up against the flanks of the hills. In the course of time the granite hills have mostly assumed the dome shape which is characteristic of this rock, but two of the mountains, Slieve Bearnagh and Slieve Bingian are crowned with huge granite crags. In other places denudation, by ice or otherwise, has produced fine cliffs, like those on Eagle Mountain, Pigeon Rock Mountain, and Cove Mountain,

Throughout the eastern half of the range, the slopes are steep, though seldom precipitous, and the valleys deep, making grand walking for the mountaineer.

The visitor to the district should not fail to include in his programme the ascent of Slieve Donard, and it is amusing to compare the light-hearted way in which the young people of the present day scamper up a mountain like this, with the serious and apprehensive frame of mind in which such an adventure was undertaken only a hundred years ago. Then, John O'Donovan, the Irish scholar, engaged in collecting information for the Ordnance Survey, made a pilgrimage" to Slieve Donard "to gratify a curiosity excited in my mind by the gigantic appearance of the mountain itself from every part of the country." He vividly describes the "difficult and dangerous" mountain slope, "never since the creation subdued by hand of cultivation," and "never to alter its primeval features until the world should be resolved into its ultimate elements." Some previous descriptions are positively lurid ! Much earlier than these, the mountain was selected as a place for meditation and prayer by St. Domangard (Donard) a disciple of St. Patrick, who built a rude cell and chapel on the lofty summit, which led to the institution of pious pilgrimages there until almost the nineteenth century.

Slieve Donard is an easy mountain to climb, for the gradient is fairly uniform from bottom to top save on the side overlooking the Glen River, where the Eagle Rock protrudes as a precipitous scarp which should be avoided. The easiest ascent is by the old tramway a little east of Newcastle harbour as far as its termination at the quarries, and on over the spur called Thomas Mountain. From the peak, on a clear day, a magnificent prospect unfolds itself.

A more beautiful mountain than Slieve Donard, on account of the diadem of gigantic granite crags which crown its summit, is Slieve Bearnagh, a couple of miles to the eastward. It also is easy of approach. From Newcastle we would take the Hilltown road, inland through the pretty village of Bryansford and on till we are clear of the woods of Tollymore Park. Keeping always to the left, we cross the Shimna River and turn up a rough road which ascends a wild mountain valley, in which lies the Trassey Burn. On our right we pass the huge rock called the Spellack and�now on the open heather�ascend steeply to the Hare's Gap, between Bearnagh and Slieve-na-glogh. From this col we get a-grand view into the heart of the mountains across the head of the Silent Valley, which lower down contains the great reservoir of the Belfast Water Commissioners. Our route lies to the right straight up the steep side of Slieve Bearnagh, over short heather to the great crags that crown the summit, whence we obtain a very fine prospect, for we are now in the centre of the range, with the mountains grouped around us on every side.

A short detour from the Hare's Gap in an easterly direction will bring us to the Diamond Rocks, which lie on the southern slope of Slieve-na-Glogh.

A rather longer day tour, and a very fine one, embraces the Blue Lough, and Slieve Bingian, which latter is perhaps the finest individualANNALONG HARBOUR mountain of the Mourne group. We can go by Glasdrumman to Dunny Water Bridge, on the Annalong River, whence we traverse for two miles a rough road used by stone cutters. We cross a rocky knoll which wind and rain have denuded of its peaty covering, leaving a desert-like expanse of stone and gravel, and see the Blue Lough in front�a lovely mountain tarn with high cliffs impending over it on the left and the steep, rocky side of Slieve Lanagan on the right. From there the ascent of Slieve Bingian is easy�up a steep slope by a rushing stream to the little Lough Bingian, and on to the giant crags which crown the summit. The view from the top is full compensation for our efforts. Less energetic people can go by car right across the range by the road which traverses the lonely moor called the Deer's Meadow (where the River Bann has its course), and down past the cliffs of Pigeon Rock Mountain to Kilkeel. A half hour's climb to the east when we are half way across the Deer's Meadow will bring us to one of the finest view-points in the whole district, overlooking Lough Shanagh. A circular drive right round the Mournes�embracing Newcastle, Annalong, Kilkeel, Rostrevor, Hilltown and Bryansford�is strongly to be recommended, as it provides lovely and changing views of mountain and sea. About midway between Newcastle and Kilkeel lies the picturesque fishing village of Annalong. Apart from fishing, its main industry is the dressing of granite for export. Good accommodation can be had in the neighbourhood. It is an ideal centre for those desirous of spending a quiet holiday. A few miles further on and midway between Newcastle and Rostrevor is the tidy little town of Kilkeel, also busily concerned with fishing and  granite. It is a fine centre for mountaineering and for both sea and river angling. Kilkeel is annually becoming more popular as a holiday resort, and good accommodation is available here.

KILKEEL IN THE KINGDOM OF MOURNEFrom Kilkeel the main road, keeping westward now, passes at a distance of a few miles the entrance of Carlingford Lough, guarded by the ancient stronghold of Greencastle and by a tall lighthouse. Greencastle was an important fortress of the Anglo-Normans, and had the tempestuous history associated with places of its kind, and the De Burgos, Edward Bruce and other local magnates or invaders in turn held it or assaulted it. Lovely Carlingford Lough is now fully open before us, and the views as we proceed are of a very high order of beauty. Beyond Killowen, the southern end of the Mourne Mountains descends steeply into the Lough covered with woods of old native oak, and these continue till the sheltered village of Rostrevor is reached with the large hotel, owned by the Great Northern Railway Company, facing the sea close by.

Rostrevor is a lovely spot, famous for the mildness of its climate. The great collection of exotic shrubs and trees that Sir John Ross ofTHE FAIRY GLEN, ROSTREVOR Bladensburg made here included many which in England can only be grown in Devon and Cornwall, within the influence of the warm Atlantic. The beautiful woods of native oak or of planted pines which rise in all directions increase the shelter and the westerly winds which come in from the open Lough are lessened and tempered by the high ridge of Carlingford Mountain on the opposite side of the water. All the favourite recreations may be indulged in here, but best of all are the many lovely walks that extend in every direction, especially those which take the visitor up through the woods to where Cloughmore, the " Big Stone," a glacial erratic weighing some 40 tons, is perched on a projecting spur, which commands a glorious prospect, or on higher and over the grassy summits that dominate this portion of the Mourne range. The tall obelisk which rises conspicuously beside the road on the Warrenpoint side of Rostrevor commemorates Major General Robert Ross, a famous Irish soldier, who fought in the American War of Independence, winning the Battle of Bladensburg against a much superior force of United States troops, and capturing Washington, only to be killed in an attack on Baltimore three weeks later.

WARRENPOINT FROM ROSTREVORWarrenpoint. This favourite watering-place stands . on a projecting area, once a rabbit warren (whence its name), near where the deep valley, down which the Newry River flows, expands into the sheltered waters of Carlingford Lough. The situation is superb, facing the entrance of the Lough, with Rostrevor Mountain and Carlingford Mountain standing sentinel on either side. Rostrevor, at the base of the mountains, is only a few minutes by bus, so that the many beautiful walks that lie around the Kilbroney valley and the adjoining hills are fully accessible.

Warrenpoint, although almost surrounded by the Mourne Mountains and the Carlingford Hills. is not relaxing ; in fact, it is probably the most invigorating place on Carlingford Lough.

Along the front an Esplanade has been erected, in the centre of which are the fine Municipal Open Air Swimming Baths, in which bathing can be enjoyed at all states of the tide. These baths furnish access to the open sea. In connection with the baths, there is a large suite of private hot sea water baths.

The town possesses a very popular 18-hole Golf Course, which was enlarged under the supervision of Capt. Lionel Hewson, M.V.0., the well-known Golf Architect. The course is open on Sundays.

A new Bowling Green has been opened at Slieve Foy Place ; Putting is also available in the same grounds. The Municipal Gardens, close to the sea front, are a great asset to the town, and invoke the admiration of visitors. In these gardens are the public Tennis Courts, also an artistic Band Stand, where Concert Parties entertain throughout the season.

The town is a good centre for motor tours, which include some of the finest drives in Ulster through the Mourne Mountains.
The angler is also catered for at the Old Reservoir, which the Council has stocked with trout, a small fee being charged. In addition, trout angling can be had in the district in the Moygannon, Rostrevor, Bann, Clanrye and Two-mile Rivers, coarse fishing being available in the Newry Canal.

There is a large fleet of rowing and sailing boats for hire, and boating is a favourite pastime here on account of the enclosed waters of the LoughCARLINGFORD LOUGH which are seldom disturbed by high wind. Excursions can be arranged to Rostrevor, Carlingford, Omeath, Narrow Water Castle.

Carlingford is a delightfully picturesque old village lying on the southern side of the Lough at the foot of the mountain of the same name. This is an historic place, important long before more popular places around it were heard of. The Anglo-Normans erected here one of the strongest castles which they built in the north-east, and one of the earliest, dating as it does from 1210. Under the name of King John's Castle it still stands, forming an imposing ruin overlooking the harbour. There are also the remains of an abbey, and a number of other interesting relics of the past scattered among the modern houses. In the opposite direction where the tidal Newry River makes a sharp bend not much more than a mile above Warrenpoint, Narrow Water Castle stands within an encircling wall guarding the passage which leads inland to

THE WATERFALL NEWRYNewry," the Gap of the North " is a centre for the famous Carlingford Lough and Mourne Mountain district. It is one of the most progressive and up-to-date towns in Ulster, and stands at the head of the Lough amid a wealth of beautiful scenery, equally attractive to the sportsman, health seeker and antiquary. The town is one of the most ancient in Ireland, and on account of its position on the Border of the Pale it has witnessed many stirring historical events. Within reach of Newry are early Christian and Pre-Christian remains. St. Patrick is said to have planted a yew tree here, from which fact the town derives its coat of arms and name. An abbey was founded in Newry in 1140 A.D. by St. Malachy, and many traces of it are still to be found.

NARROWWATER AND OLDCASTEThe district around Newry is teeming with historical memories. Slieve Gullion, the "most storied mountain in Ireland " ; Foughart, said to be the birthplace of St. Brigid; Carlingford, etc., all famous in history. Narrowwater Castle, which occupies a commanding position on the river bank between Newry and Warrenpoint. and was the scene of many warlike encounters is well worthy of a visit also the modern castle with its beautiful ground: and park�the seat of the Hall family. There are many facilities for visiting the places of interest about Newry, and special mention should be mad( of the railway and coat} tours around the coast, via Warrenpoint, Rostrevor Kilkeel, Newcastle, etc

The River Bann, at Hilltown, about ten miles from Newry, is a well-known trout river.

There are omnibus services to Hilltown from Newry, Newcastle, and Warrenpoint. There are many historical objects in the districts, including the old Clonduff Church, and a famous cromlech, in the townland of Goward, a short distance from Hilltown.

So far this chapter has dealt mainly with the regions bordering on the coastline, but it is true that the interior of County Down holds great interests for the visitor as well as an alluring beauty.

BLEACH GREEN NEAR BANBRIDGEFrom Newry the main road to Belfast leads inland to Banbridge. Here the tourist will see a typical Ulster country town. This flourishing centre of the linen industry is picturesquely situated on the Upper Bann, about 20 miles from Belfast. Many enterprising manufactories of linen are
in the neighbourhood, also extensive bleach-greens.

The fabric for the making of which Ulster is so famous can, at all seasons of the year, be seen spread out over the fields to bleach. Tourists are allowed, on application being made, to see how the manufacture of the unequalled Ulster damask linen is carried on at the works in the town of the world-famed firm of linen manufacturers�Messrs. Robinson & Cleaver, Ltd.

Banbridge is in the parish of Seapatrick, and the ruins of the old church may still be seen in a graveyard about a mile away. This very ancient ecclesiastical site is said to have been founded by St. Patrick. What was probably a holy well may be viewed beside the grave-yard. The River Bann flows by in the valley, and here we feel ourselves to be at one of the cradles of Christianity in Ireland, and we can appreciate the beauty of the spot that attracted the Patron Saint to the land.

There is a constant service of railway trains and motor buses to and from Banbridge.

Lovers of sport are here in a congenial atmosphere. The local links are a nine-hole course, well laid out and carefully kept up. Visitors are made welcome at the cheap rate of two shillings a day, or seven shillings and sixpence a week. A cricket field and tennis courts are pleasantly situated in the town. Tennis can be had at a nominal charge. The Bann affords excellent brown trout fishing (free) for a stretch of about twelve miles, and the pike fisher can find his quarry awaiting him in the Corbet Lake, about two miles distant.

In the church square, opposite the house in which he was born in 1796, stands a striking monument to one of the town's most distinguished"IN THE HEART OF DOWN" - THE MOURNE MOUNTAINS FROM LEGANANNY sons�Captain Francis Rawdon Moira Crozier, R.N. The best authorities award Crozier the fame of having discovered the North-West Passage. Still following the main road we come to in the heart of County Down. It is Dromore, notable for its ecclesiastical history, and
buried in the Cathedral are Bishop Jeremy Taylor, the author of "Holy Living," one of the great churchmen in history, and Bishop Percy, of whom Johnson said, "A man out of whose company I never go without having learned something." The oldest feature about Dromore is doubtless what is called "The Mount," a great earthen mound whose construction is lost in the ages of the past. This monument was probably erected for sepulchral reasons and afterwards used as the scene for ceremonial gatherings and judicial functions of the ancient Irish. Dromore was the site of the first Christian settlement founded by St. Colman, who was the first bishop and abbot of the religious community about the end of the 5th century. His pillow stone is still preserved at the Cathedral and the High Cross of County Down granite originally erected by some of his successors has been repaired and now stands in the graveyard. Gill Hall, until recently the seat of the Earls of Clanwilliam, is also notable as the scene of one of the most remarkable ghost stories in the history of Ulster.

The town itself, which is picturesquely situated on the River Lagan, is prosperous, and important fairs and flax markets are held periodically. Very good fishing can be had in the district on the rivers Lagan and Upper Bann.

Dromara, a few miles south-east lies in the very centre of the flax-growing , district of Ulster. In the summer it is a most beautiful sight to see fields of flax in full blossom. This district has somehow been over-looked by the tourist, yet it is, without question, one of the most beautiful in the county. Perhaps indeed it is just the fact that it is off the beaten track which gives it special charm. Good angling is to be had in the vicinity, and the rambler will find delight in climbing Slieve Croob and the surrounding hills.

Ballynahinch, a few miles east of Dromara, where  there is an old established spa, with two springs�one chalybeate � and the other sulphurous. These springs are now under new management, and greatly improved facilities have been provided for "taking the waters." In addition, suites of hot sulphur baths have been installed for the convenience of patrons.

Close by is a well kept Maze, which is said to be longer and more intricate than the famous one at Hampton Court. Five miles from here is Slieve Croob ("the mountain of the hoof"), a bare and gaunt mountain. There are five great cairns on its summit, and two and a half miles away, in the townland of Legananny, is a remarkable cromlech standing on a slope to the west of Boley Lough.

Some of the loveliest views in the whole of County Down are obtainable in this district, and at "The Spa" there is an excellent golf links. The Lagan, which rises near by on Slieve Croob, is well known to anglers for its trout. Close by is Begney Lake, where very large pike have been caught, while in the district there is plenty of shooting�grouse, partridge, duck and snipe.

Returning to the main road from Dromore to Belfast, the last place of importance before crossing the boundary into County Antrim, is Hillsborough, a pretty village built on a steep hill.  It has a fine park, enclosing a 17th century fort, in which William III. is said to have slept in 1690, and which is visited by large numbers of tourists. On the hilltop stands a monument to the 4th Marquis of Downshire.

The Maze Racecourse, an historic venue, has long been associated with Hillsborough.

The official residence of the Governor of Northern Ireland is now situated at Hillsborough. Hillsborough Castle, formerly the property of the Marquess of Downshire, was purchased by the Imperial Government in 1924 and is now Government House, Northern Ireland, and is occupied by His Grace the Duke of Abercorn, K.G., K.P., the first Governor.

The following members of the Royal family have stayed at Government House :�In 1928 the Princess Royal, then Princess Mary Viscountess Lascelles, visited there in October, and visits have since been paid by His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, on the occasion of his State Visit to Northern Ireland in November, 1932 ; by Her Royal Highness Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone, on the occasion of the opening of the Bazaar in aid of the Ulster Division in October, 1933, and lastly by His Royal Highness the Duke of Gloucester for the opening of The King's Hall of the Royal Ulster Agricultural Society in May, 1934, and shortly after he had been created Earl of Ulster.