Ulster 1935
The official Publication
of the Ulster Tourist Development Association Ltd.




County Fermanagh.



" And I shall have some peace there, for peace comes dropping slow,
Dropping from the veils of the morning to where the cricket sings ;
There midnight's all a glimmer, and noon a purple glow, And evening's full of the linnet's wings."

COUNTY FERMANAGH derives its name from FIRMONACH the men of MONACH, a Leinster tribe of which some members settled around the shores of Lough Erne early in the Christian era. Bounded on the east by Tyrone and Monaghan, on the north by Tyrone, on the north-west and west by Donegal, and on the south-west and south by Leitrim and Cavan, Fermanagh is completely divided by its two great lakes.

Lough Erne.
The river which forms the main source of these rises in Co. Longford, and after passing through Co. Cavan to the southern border of Ulster and of Co. Fermanagh, unites with two other rivers to form Upper Lough Erne, a lake about 15 miles in length, and 4 miles in breadth.

"HARVEST TIME" LOWER LOUGH ERNEAt its northern extremity Upper Lough Erne narrows into a channel around the island on which Enniskillen is built, and about a mile to the north-west of that town the channel broadens into the magnificent sheet of water known as Lower Lough Erne, which is about 20 miles in length, and at its widest point about 7 miles in breadth. Near the western border of the county this lake again narrows into a river before its waters enter on their final journey past Belleek and Ballyshannon into the Atlantic Ocean. With a navigable course of over fifty miles amongst scores of islands, many of which are covered with trees and luxuriant foliage to the water's edge, Upper and Lower Lough Erne, as well as the adjoining lakes of Macnean and Melvin, present to the yachtsman and the oarsman, as well as to the motorist and the pedestrian, scenes of unrivalled beauty. "The beauty of Ireland is the beauty of its waters, says Mr. Stephen Gwynn, and these words are singularly appropriate when applied to the Lake district of Ulster. The tranquil beauty of the wooded islands as they stud the placid bosom of Lough Erne, the exquisite settings of the sylvan scenes which surround the sun-kissed waters, the purple heaths which crown the wild declivities, the grey rocks, and storm pitted cliffs combine each with the other to create a veritable dream of loveliness. In few counties do the territorial families maintain their mansion houses and demesne lands in keeping with family traditions to the same extent as in Fermanagh, contributing thereby to the well-being of the district, and adding to the charm of lake and countryside by the profuseness of the woods and plantations. Amidst such surroundings it would be difficult to find more effective settings for the many ruined and picturesque castles whose weatherworn and war-scarred battlements reflect the turbulent history of the Ulster Plantation.

Previous to the reign of James I. Enniskillen, the capital of Fermanagh, was a stronghold of the Maguires, the chieftains of Fermanagh, one ofOLD WATER GATE, ENNISKILLEN CASTLE whose castles stood on an island in the river connecting Upper with Lower Lough Erne. The old name of this island was Innis Cethlen, or Cethlen's Island, thought to have been so called from Cethlen, wife of Balor of the Mighty Blows, one of the mythical Fomorian Kings of Ireland. In 1607 we find William Cole in possession of a castle as its captain and warden, and between 1611 and 1613 the advantage of the situation induced James I. to make him considerable grants of land, including one-third of the island of Inniskilling, on condition that he thereon built a town and settled twenty British families, who were to be incorporated as burgesses. This castle was situated to the west of the town in what is now called the Castle Barracks, and of it very little remains except a turreted gateway which may be seen on the river side.

Florence Court.
Captain William Cole was ancestor of the Earls of Enniskillen, and since 1756 the family have resided in the palatial mansion of Florence Court, which, with a frontage of 260 feet, is probably the finest mid-Georgian mansion in Northern Ireland.

The Royal School.
In 1618, under Royal Charter, there was  founded the celebrated Royal School of Enniskillen. At first carried on at Lisnaskea, the school was subsequently transferred to Enniskillen. In 1777 the main portion of the present building, which has since been largely added to, was erected in the beautiful Enniskillen suburb of Portora. Many Portora boys have become famous, amongst such being the first Lord Plunkett, Rev. H. F. Lyte (author of "Abide with Me"), Archbishop Magee, of Dublin, and the brilliant but unfortunate Oscar Wilde.

The Enniskillen Regiments.
ENNISKILLEN FROM PORTORADuring the Revolution of 1689 the residents of Enniskillen, who were mainly the Protestant descendants of English and Scotch settlers, learning
that two companies of infantry belonging to the army of James II. were to be quartered on the inhabitants, decided on resistance, and, in an engagement fought outside the town, were successful in dispersing the invading forces. Throughout the remainder of this campaign Enniskillen was held for William III., under the governorship of Gustavus Hamilton, a Fermanagh gentleman of Monea Castle. From the men who fought for Enniskillen at this time there subsequently developed those well-known regiments of the British Army, the 6th Inniskilling Dragoons and the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, regiments which have brought fame to Enniskillen throughout the British Empire.

The Cathedral.
The Protestant Cathedral of the Diocese of Clogher, formerly the Parish Church of Enniskillen, with nave, chancel and side aisles, built in 1842 on the site of an older church, contains a statue to the memory of General the Hon. Sir Galbraith Lowry Cole, G.C.B., Commander of the 4th Division during the Peninsular War.

The three guidons of the Inniskilling Dragoons and the colours of the Inniskilling Fusiliers are deposited here.

War Memorials.
In Belmore Street will be seen two handsome War Memorials ; one in memory of  the Fermanagh men who made the supreme sacrifice in the Great War, and the other commemorative of the officers and men of the Inniskilling Dragoons and Inniskilling Fusiliers who fell in the last South African War.

Enniskillen is fortunate in having a well laid out public park, known as Forthill. This contains a magnificent pillar and statue erected to General the Hon. Sir Galbraith Lowry Cole, G.C.B., which can be seen at considerable distances from the town.

Fermanagh Celebrities.
Amongst the Fermanagh men who became famous abroad were Dr. Wm.  Irvine, born in Enniskillen in 1741, who raised and equipped the 6th Pennsylvania Regiment, and was in command of the North Western Frontier during the American War of Independence, also Colonel Francis Nichols, born at Crieve Hill, Co. Fermanagh, 1737, who achieved distinction at the same time.

Castle Coole.
One of the stateliest residences in Ireland is Castle Coole, seat of the Earl of Belmore. Surrounded by a well wooded demesne of 1,500 acres, which is much admired by visitors entering Enniskillen via road from Belfast and Dublin, the mansion was erected at the beginning of the nineteenth century, and is built of Portland stone, which in the wholesome air of Co. Fermanagh has retained its wonderful whiteness. It is stated the cost was �54,000, a princely sum at that period.

It would be difficult to imagine a more charming or romantic district for the holiday-maker than can be found in the neighbourhood of Enniskillen, and visitors will, therefore, regard that town as a convenient centre from which to arrange their itineraries. The respective train and bus services concentrate on the town where there are excellent hotels such as the Imperial and the Royal, as well as the prettily situated Lough Erne Hotel at Killadeas, about seven miles distant.

Lake Drive.
No one who desires to see Fermanagh  can omit the magnificent drive around the shores of Lower Lough Erne, and as the distance via Belleek is only fifty seven miles over excellent roads, the journey can be done in a few hours. Leaving Enniskillen at the eastern end the motorist bears left at the South African War Memorial, and after a few miles passes Trory Church, ' Rossfad,' the residence of Colonel Richardson, ' St. Angelo,' the residence of the Bishop of Clogher. the Lough Erne Hotel at Killadeas, and later the village of Lisnarick and Castle Archdale, with its pretty church adjoining the road.

Castle Archdale.
In the early years of the 17th century Irish roads were few and travelling was dangerous ; in consequence, the undertakers of the Ulster Plantation quickly recognised the advantage afforded by residence on a great watery highway like Lough Erne, which provided a method of communication which was speedy and secure. Many of the sites then chosen for the Plantation castles are remarkable for their beauty, and, in this respect, it would be difficult to find a more picturesquely situated ruin than that of the original Castle Archdale, which is a fine example of the architectural design of the period. The modern castle, a noble structure, is the home of Lieut.-Colonel J. B. Archdale, D.L.

After passing Castle Archdale, the motorist is recommended to leave the main road for a little, and keep tothe left by the Clareview road. As this is an old high-way and somewhat narrow, drivers are advised to exercise care, but the entrancing view, which is quickly obtained, of White Island and its surroundings on Lough Erne, will well repay any inconvenience caused by the quality of the road.

Crevenish Castle.
Continuing by this route Crevenish Castle, another Plantation residence, is passed on the left before reaching the village of Kesh. Crevenish was built by Thomas Blennerhasset, early in the seventeenth century. During the outbreak of 1641 Captain Rory Maguire, brother of Lord Maguire, who was executed at Tyburn Hill for complicity in the insurrection, resided here through having married Lady Deborah Blennerhasset. On reaching the village of Kesh, the main road to Belleek is again resumed, and two miles later the splendid new bridge is crossed into Boa Island, which is four miles in length.

Castle Caldwell.
Leaving Boa Island and proceeding five miles further, near Castle Caldwell Railway Station will be seen the well-known fiddle stone, with its quaint reminder of the fate that befell the fiddler in 1770.

" On firm land only. Exercise your skill.
There you may play and safely drink your fill."

THE RIVER ERNE AT BELLEEKShould it be desired at this point to shorten the return journey to Enniskillen, the new Rosscor Bridge can be crossed to the southern shore of the lake, but if possible it is advisable to continue the journey to Belleek (the ford mouth of the flag stone), where visitors can arrange to inspect the beautiful productions of the celebrated porcelain factory which was originally founded by Mr. J. C. Bloomfield, D.L., of Castle Caldwell, through the enterprise of the late Mr. McBirney, of Dublin. An opportunity may also be taken of seeing the great sluice gates, which control the level of Lough Erne. As a fishing resort, Belleek is one of the most popular and convenient centres in Fermanagh, and is well supplied with excellent hotels. Proceeding from Belleek on the return journey to Enniskillen by the southern shore of the lake, motorists should note that the first few hundred yards of road between Belleek Bridge and the British Customs Hut are in the Irish Free State, and that while permission is granted by the Free State authorities to use this road, motorists must not stop until they have crossed into Northern Ireland territory.

The fascinating and fairy-like beauty which presents itself on the 22 miles run from Belleek to Enniskillen can be but faintly sketched by pen or pencil. Motorist, cyclist and pedestrian, will readily agree with the celebrated traveller, Harry De Wint, who once said :�"Nothing in Great Britain, perhaps nothing in Europe, can surpass the beauty of the whole road that leads to Enniskillen."

Tully Castle.
About 12 miles from Belleek will be  seen the picturesque ruins of Tully Castle, built by Sir John Hume, and said to have been burnt in 1641 by Captain Rory Maguire. Nearer Enniskillen the well-wooded lands of Ely Lodge, residence of Lord Loftus and Castle Hume, add a pleasing feature to this part of the journey.

Of the ancient ecclesiastical remains in Fermanagh those on the island of Devenish in Lower Lough Erne, are the most important. Founded inABBEY AND ROUND TOWER. DEVENISH ISLAND the sixth century by St. Molaise, the oldest remaining building is the little ruined church built in that early style described as cyclopean and which is known as Molaise's House. Originally a stone-roofed edifice, the roofing stones were somewhat ruthlessly removed early in the nineteenth century. The beautiful carving of the pilaster quoins was probably done some centuries after the date of erection. Although not the oldest, the most attractive feature is the Round Tower. Primarily used as belfries, and secondarily as storehouses for the preservation of the monastic treasures during the Danish invasions, none of the Irish Round Towers retains its original beauty and perfection to a greater degree than the Devenish example. With a total vertical height of 81 feet 4i inches, the tower was originally divided into five stories, each floor being lighted by a small window, except the upper which has four windows facing the cardinal points. A feature of this tower is its richly sculptured cornice, under the cap, which displays four carved human heads over the four windows which may represent Saints Patrick, Columba, Molaise, and Brigid. The Old Abbey or TEAMPUL MOR, the great church, was probably erected in the twelfth century, and extended at later dates. A feature is the deeply embayed arched window in the south wall, near which is the mausoleum of a branch of the Maguire family.

St. Mary's Abbey retains many traces of its architectural splendour. The quadrangular belfry tower, and the groining of its vault, together with the decorated pointed door in the northern wall are worth inspection.

The cloister and the Abbey buildings lay to the north of this church. South of the Abbey is a somewhat remarkable type of ornamental cross with the crucifixion in relief carved on its eastern side.

If time permits antiquarians might also visit White Island, with its Romanesque door and curious sculptured figures.

Lough Eyes.
Five miles from Enniskillen is the village of Lisbellaw, near which on Lough Eyes may be seen a number of crannogs or lake dwellings.

Six miles to the south west of Lisbellaw is Lisnaskea, which was one of the inauguration places of the Maguire chieftains, and where Sir James Balfour built his castle in 1615.

Crom Castle.
Six miles further south is the Earl of  Erne's demesne and castle of Crom, where will be seen the remains of the charmingly situated old castle which twice withstood the sieges of the army of King James II. Close by is a yew tree of gigantic dimensions. Visitors are usually admitted here on Fridays.

The Marble Arch.
No more delightful excursion can be  arranged than one to the Marble Arch, two miles from Florencecourt, for which permits should be obtained from the Estate Office, Middleton Street, Enniskillen. Approached through a glen of great beauty, the Arch is the mouth of an underground river, which after flowing through unknown caverns here returns to the light of day. With the aid of a canvas boat some of these caves were explored by Martel, the French speleologist, accompanied by the late Dr. H. Lyster Jameson. A short distance from here, at Gortatole, is a splendid mountain road, with magnificent panoramic views of Upper and Lower Lough Macnean, as well as of Cuilcagh Mountain, where the River Shannon rises. Close to this road are three cashels.

Doohat Monument.
On the eastern slopes of Benaughlin Mountain, at a distance of about half a mile from the Enniskillen�Swanlinbar road, is the celebrated star shaped monument of Doohat to the south of which at a distance of a few yards is a horned cairn. the whole suggesting a star and crescent.

Amongst the most accessible of the Fermanagh  caves are those at Boho, about six miles from Enniskillen. Colonies of Daubenton's bat
may here be found.

Several other caves may be explored in  this district, while at Knockmore, near the village of Derrygonnelly, are caves on whose walls will be seen scribings or carvings believed to be the work of primitive man.

No finer view of Upper Lough Erne can be obtained than from Knockninny Hill, ten miles south of Enniskillen. Here also will be found a cave used as a sepulchre by early man, while on the summit are three prehistoric cairns, and at short distance two "Giants GGraves" of the dolmen type.

Looking in a north westerly direction the  beautiful island of Bellisle will be seen. In the monastery which once stood on this island Cathal Maguire, who died in 1498, compiled " The Annals of Ulster."

No Fermanagh holiday should conclude without a visit to Garrison, the haunt of Isaac Walton's disciples on the beautiful Lough Melvin, and if this is approached through Belcoo very fine views will be obtained of Upper and Lower Lough Macnean.

The ancient churches of Templenaffrin (the church of the Mass), and Holywell are passed near Belcoo, and in both of these the antiquary will find points of interest.


Dean of Derry.

VISITORS to Ulster should not fail to spend a portion of their itinerary in the ancient and historic City of Londonderry, the Walls of which, erected in 1617, and still in perfect preservation, are surmounted by the ordnance which enabled its heroic defenders to repel the assaults of the enemy during the ever memorable Siege of 1688 and 1689, of which the golden pens of Macaulay, Reid, Witherow, and Lecky have left undying records. Visit its beautiful Guildhall, which contains a most magnificent range of historical stained glass windows, Statuary, and a very fine Organ, built by Messrs. Hill & Sons, London, to the specification of the late Sir Walter Parratt. Inspect its War Memorial, one of the most artistic in the Kingdom. Enter the Cathedral of St. Columb, erected in the year 1633, and replete with memorials of the Siege ; ascend its Tower, from which in a clear atmosphere a charming view may be obtained of the City and surrounding country, together with the windings of the River Foyle, and in the distance Lough Foyle and the Innishowen Headlands. In the Churchyard which surrounds the Cathedral may be seen the "Apprentice Boys' Mound," wherein repose the ashes of the mighty dead. St. Eugene's Roman Catholic Cathedral, an ornate and impressive building and one of the largest in Northern Ireland, should be visited. This Cathedral, the foundation stone of which was laid in 1851, was completed in 1906 by the erection of a bell tower and lofty spire. In the Churchyard of Long Tower is St. Columba's Stone, on which the Saint is said to have kneeled in prayer. In addition to the foregoing are a number of fine Churches attached to the Presbyterian
and Methodist denominations
. .......................................................................................................
The London and Midland and Scottish Railway connect. Londonderry wan Belfast, and also with South and West Donegal.
The Great Northern Railway of Ireland connects Londonderry with Baited and Dublin.
The Londonderry and Lough Swilly Railway connects Londonderry with North and West Donegal.
Guide to the City can he obtained from the Town Clerk. Guildhall, upon receipt of' stamped addressed envelope.

Were the tribute of all Alba mine,
From the centre to the border,
I would prefer the site of one house
In the middle of fair Derry."

Derry, so called from the oaks with which the banks of the Foyle here were anciently clad, was founded by S. Columba in 546. This famous"DERRY" IN 1688 missionary Saint, through whose labours and those of his followers Scotland and Northern England were converted to Christianity, was born at Gartan, Co. Donegal, on December 7th, 521. He was a member of the reigning family of Ireland and of British Dalriada. Censured by an Irish Synod for having stirred up strife, he left his country, with 12 companions, in the year 563 and settled in (Hy) Iona off the coast of Scotland. But to the end, his love for Derry was intense, and the extract opening this chapter is taken from one of his poems written long after his departure.

No traces of his monastery remain, the site of which is now occupied by the Long Tower Roman Catholic Church. Here also stood the ancient Cathedral, the Temple More (i.e., Great Church), built in 1164. A Cistercian Nunnery was built on the south side of the city in 1218, a Dominican Abbey and Church on the north side in 1274, and Augustinian Friary and Church. where S. Augustine's Church now stands, about the end of the 13th century, and a Franciscan Friary, the date of which is uncertain, where Abbey Street now runs. S. Brecan's Church inside the grounds of S. Columb's, at the Waterside. is the most ancient ruin inside the city boundary. It was used by Primate Colton at his visitation in 1397

Unfortunately Derry proved attractive to the Danes both on account of its ecclesiastical treasures and its safe harbourage. The Irish Annals record number of their onslaughts between 832 and 1100. They also relate the burning of the city or at least seven occasions by accident or in strife before the year 1200.

After the Danes came the Anglo - Normans whose mania for plundering churches is frequently referred to by the old annalists. In 1195, 1197 and 1198 John de Courcy and Rotsel Peyton plundered the churches of Derry
But, alas, our own countrymen were little better, for in 1197 a Mac Etig of Co. Derry robbed the altar of the Cathedral of "the four richest goblets in Ireland," and in 1213 Thomas MacUchtry and Rory MacRandal from Coleraine plundered the town. After the de Courcys came in the 13th century de Lacys, and in the 14th de Burgos, who built fortresses�Green Castle. White Castle, etc.�on the shores of Lough Foyle.

In 1566, during the Rebellion of Shane O'Neill, Derry was chosen for the headquarters of the forces sent against him. But on April 24, 1568, the magazine which contained ammunition for the English Army in the north blew up, destroying the town and fort, and causing great loss of life. After this it was abandoned by the military until 1600, when Sir Henry Docwra. sent by Queen Elizabeth, selected it as the site of his camp. Docwra built a fort at Culmore, and another five miles up the river, at Dunnalong, to protect his camp and the city which he proposed to build. He was actually constituted Provost for life of the City of Derry in 1604, by a charter of King James I., but shortly afterwards left the district. His successor, Sir George Paulett, having by his in-justice and insults goaded Sir Cahir O'Doherty, the young chief of Inishowen, into rebellion, was surprised and slain by Sir Cahir, and the city once more laid in ruins. After the suppression of this rising, King James began to entertain projects for the plantation of the district with settlers from England, with the result that in 1613 he formed by charter a new county, to be called the County of Londonderry, and to comprise all the old County of Coleraine, part of the County of Tyrone, part of the County of Antrim (Coleraine and its liberties), part of the County of Donegal (Derry and its liberties), and also the whole of Lough Foyle, with the ground or soil thereof, from the high seas unto the town of Lifford. The charter also created the Borough and Corporation of the City of Londonderry. It conveyed the whole county thus formed to "six and twenty honest and discreet citizens of our City of London" who shall be and shall be called " The Society of the Governor and Assistants, London, of the new plantation in Ulster, within the realm of the Kingdom of Ireland." Thus the name of the city was changed to Londonderry, and thus the Irish Society was formed to promote religion, education and industry in the newly constituted county.

NEW CRAIGAVON BRIDGE ACROSS THE FOYLEThe Governor of the Irish Society must be an Alderman of the City of London. The Recorder of London is ex-officio a member of the Society, and the twenty-four Assistants are Aldermen or Common Councillors of the city. The Society divided the agricultural land among twelve great London companies�the Grocers, Merchant Tailors, Drapers, Vintners, Goldsmiths, etc., some of whom sub-divided portions of their shares with the smaller companies so that some 40 London companies were concerned with the plantation of the county. But the Irish Society retained in their own hands the towns of Londonderry and Coleraine and the valuable fisheries on the Foyle and Bann, which they hold to this day. They are the ground landlords of these towns, they own the Walls of Derry, and they visit and inspect their property every year.
The building of a city here was no easy task and proceeded slowly. The Walls, happily preserved entire, were completed by 1619 at a cost of 8,357. In 1628 the commissioner sent by the King to enquire how far the Irish Society had complied with their undertakings reported that 265 houses had been built within the Walls. In 1633 S. Columb's Cathedral was completed.

In 1641 the country was again in a state of warfare and bloodshed. The city was crowded with refugees. From these and from the inhabitants seven regiments were formed, which kept the enemy at a distance, and preserved the country around from the massacres which occurred in other northern counties. In 1649 the city suffered from a siege lasting twenty weeks, being held by Sir Charles Coote for the Parliament, and besieged by Lord Montgomery of the Ardes and General Robert Stewart, leaders of the Royal forces. Coote hired Owen Roe O'Neill to come to his assistance and compelled the besieging forces to withdraw.

In 1688 the Earl of Tyrconnel sent over to England to support the cause of King James II. the best troops then in Ire-land, amongst the number,ST. COLUMB'S CATHEDRAL those who garrisoned Derry. Lord Antrim was ordered to occupy the city with his regiment, but was delayed by the difficulty of getting sufficient recruits. Meanwhile the citizens were alarmed by rumours of an impending massacre, similar to that of 1641. When Lord Antrim's regiment arrived on December 7th, and was being ferried across the river, two officers entered the city, demanding admission and billets for the troops. There was a hot debate in the Corporation, and considerable delay ensued. The soldiers, waiting outside, were becoming impatient, when the young men of the city took the matter into their own hands, overpowered the guards, locked the gates, and threatened to fire on the advancing soldiers, which caused them hastily to retreat. After this daring exploit, the citizens took stock. they found their cannon illmounted and without ammunition, they had only 300 men within the city who had ever borne arms, and they had few weapons for those who had experience of war ; however, they set to work to repair the fortifications and to procure what arms, ammunition and assistance they could: On the 18th of April, 1689, King James and his army invested the city. James fled, when having advanced contrary to the terms of an armistice, a cannon fired from the Cathedral Tower killed an officer and several men near him. Then commenced what Lord Macaulay terms "the most memorable siege in the annals of the British Isles." To his history we must refer those wishing to learn the particulars of that heroic defence which has made the city famous. The siege lasted 105 days, 7,000 persons perished within the walls, and the defenders were reduced to the last extremities of starvation. On the 28th of July three relieving ships with the Dartmouth, a man-of-war, entered the river at Culmore, the Mountjoy leading. An immense boom of floating beams roped together, was cut by the crew of the longboat of the Swallow, the Mountjoy striking the severed boom ran ashore and was subjected to heavy fire from the forts at each end of the boom, her commander, Captain Browning and several of the crew being killed, but the rising tide, aided by the recoil of her guns, floated her off, and with the other ships, the Jerusalem and the Phoenix, she arrived at the Quay at 10 o'clock at night. The besieging forces marched off on August 1st, burning every church and house on their way.

Since these turbulent days, the pages of  history record Derry progressing along more peaceful channels, and for over a century it has taken a foremost place in the world in the manufacture of Shirts and Collars, there being more than 30 factories engaged in this work, employing many thousands of hands. It is also famed for its Hams and Bacon, Bread and Biscuits, produced in splendidly equipped factories. It is a centre of the Milling industry, and has large foundries, saw-mills and box and yeast factories. It has also acquired more than a local reputation in the manufacture of Hosiery and kindred apparel. To-day. Derry is the second city and port of Ulster, with a population of approximately 50.000

It is connected with the capital,  BELFAST, by the Great Northern Railway and the L.M.S. (N.C.C.) Railway, both of which lines maintain good services. The Donegal Railway and the Lough Swilly Co. bring all Donegal within easy reach by rail and bus. There are also Catherwood and L.M.S. (N.C.C.) Bus Services, covering practically the whole county. Londonderry has frequent connections by steamer with Great Britain and the American Continent, and particulars of these services will be found elsewhere in this Guide.

"ROARING MEG" THE FAMOUS SIEGE GUNExtraordinarily striking and beautiful views  of Derry and its setting can be seen from the surrounding high hills. From the old Strabane road and from the hills above the cemetery one sees in fine panorama the whole city, the river winding down to Lough Foyle. the distant hills of Benevenagh and the Keady making a beautiful picture. Visitors will be pleased with te excellence of the hotels and restaurants, which thus contribute to the appeal of the city, as an headquarters for touring the County of Londonderry ; it is also the gateway to Donegal, and as such is an ideal centre for touring that beautiful county, where some of the most striking mountain and coastal scenery In Ireland is to be found.

In the immediate vicinity of the city there is much of interest and beauty. Within six miles is the Grianan of Aileach (' The stone house of the Sun') probably one of the five places marked by Ptolemy on his map of Ireland (A.D. 55). This was a residence of the Northern Kings of Ireland down to A.D. 1101, when it was demolished by Murtagh O'Brien, King of Munster. It consists to-day of a circular stone cashel 77 feet in diameter, with walls in some places 15 feet thick, terraced inside and pierced by galleries. The view from the hill on which this monument stands is one of the finest imaginable, Lough Swilly, surrounded by beautiful mountains, lies at one's feet, Lough Foyle quite near, Letterkenny and Strabane, and the whole range of the Derry and Donegal mountains are visible. A pleasant run is to the Ness Waterfall and Glen, between Derry and Dungiven, and thence to the Glens of Banagher. All this district is full of beautiful bogs, glens, mountains.

There are now few relics of antiquity  within the city boundaries. The ancient Walls with their interesting bastions and platforms survive, and onTHE WALKER MONUMENT ON THE CITY WALL them and along the Quays may be seen many old cannon, the gifts of the London companies in 1642. S. Columb's Cathedral, completed by the Irish Society in 1633, contains many relics of the siege and occupies a commanding site, within the Walls, on the summit of the hill on which the city is built.

The building contains many striking memorials, including the padlocks and keys of the City Gates, locked in the face of King James's soldiers in 1688, and the staves and portions of silk of banners, taken from the French b Colonel Michelburne at the Battle of the Windmill I fill, , May 6th, 1689.

The bells in the tower are of great antiquity, one recast for the Cathedral in 1614, one of 1630, and five of them having been given by King Charles I. in 1638. In 1929 the old peal of eight bells was recast, and five new bells added by the Hon. the Irish Society and others, and in 1933 magnificent entrance gates were presented by the same society. Just outside the city on the Moville Road, in the garden at Belmont, is S. Columb's stone, one of the inauguration stones of the ancient Irish chieftains. It has the sculptured impression of two feet, and is possibly the stone used at the inauguration of the Kings of Aileach long before the Christian era

Modern Buildings.
SHIPQUAY GATE AND THE GUILDHALLThe Guildhall, completed in1912, occupies the site of a previous one built in 1887 and destroyed by fire in 1908. The first "Town House" was erected in 1616 in the Diamond, and was destroyed in the Siege of 1689. The Guildhall contains a splendid series of stained glass windows, many of them gifts of the London companies, bearing their arms, and illustrating the history of Derry. Several are War Memorials, gifts of the Women Voluntary War Workers of Derry. Others were given by members of the Irish Society, and by prominent citizens. In the Guildhall is the Corporation Plate, including the Mayor's Medal and Chain of Office, and the Mace presented by King William III., Mayor's Gold Collarette, massive Loving Cups and other interesting pieces. Here also is the Sword of State resented by the Irish Society in 1616, and that of Sir Cahir O'Doherty. Among the records are the Charter of 1662, the Freemans Roll, the Corporation Minute Books, and many other documents of historical value.

St. Eugene's Cathedral is a very fine Gothic building. dedicated in 1873. It has a beautiful spire, a very sweet Carillon of Bells, and an east window of splendid pro-portions 54 feet in height and 23 in breadth.

Magee College is an admirably equipped and most flourishing centre of education for those pursuing a University career. Foyle College has a notable record of famous past pupils, among them Lord Lawrence, Sir Henry Lawrence, Sir Robert Montgomery and other heroes of the Indian Mutiny. The High School, Duncreggan, has beautiful grounds, excellent buildings. and is constantly increasing in number. and equipment St. Columb's College has a fine educational record, and has a very large number of boarers and excellent accommodation.

The Craigavon Bridge, connecting the portion of the city on either side of the river, is by far the largest and finest bridge in Northern Ire-land, 1,200 feet long, 40 feet wide in the roadway, with footpaths 10 feet wide at the sides, and underneath a subway for rail traffic. It was erected at a cost of over �250,000, and was opened in state by the Lord Mayor of London on July 18th, 1933.

Londonderry has long been a garrison city, and now has a spacious and up-to-date barracks.

Sport and Recreation.
There is a fine golf course (18 holes) at  Prehen, a mile from the city on the Strabane Road, in a most picturesque setting above the river, and at Lisfannon, 10 miles from the city, near Buncrana, are the popular links of the North-West Club. The city is well provided with Municipal Bowling Greens and Tennis Courts in Brooke Park. The City of Derry Boating Club has a distinguished record, including the winning of the Coronation Cup, presented by the King at Cork in 1911, and the defeat of the Australian Olympic Crew in the final heat at the Tailteann Games in Dublin a few years ago. Cricket, football and hockey clubs abound, and there is a Garrison Drag Hunt in the season. The Cinemas, too, are numerous and up-to-date, and the facilities for fishing and shooting in the district are exceptionally good.

County Londonderry.


" In Derry Vale beside the singing river,
So oft I strayed, ah, many years ago,
And culled at morn the golden daffodillies
That come with spring to set the world aglow.
Oh, Derry Vale, my thoughts are ever turning
To your broad stream and fairy circled lea.
For your green isles my exiled heart is yearning
So far away across the sea."
�By permission of Novello & Co., LTD

I WILL make the County of Londonderry to look like a gentleman," said Frederick William Aston Hervey, Earl of Bristol and Bishop of Derry. To a great degree the Bishop succeeded. In no other country are the towns and villages so uniformly well planned, so clean and attractive as in the county that lies between the Foyle and the Bann Rivers.

There are Gaelic enthusiasts who would say that the name "London" added to "Derry" is an unwelcome intrusion in our nomenclature, but they are wrong, for the finest place-name in our Kingdom�LONDON�at once sonorous, dignified, meaningful, is a Celtic word meaning "the pool by the fortified hill or dun." Has not Turner caught on his canvas that pool that gives the world's capital its name ?

Not only has the addition of London to Derry. -the oakwood,' enhanced the Maiden City's prestige, but the great Metropolis has been to the County of Londonderry a beneficent mother. The brain of London is revealed in the architecture and town planning to which this Bishop of Derry gave the ecclesiastical finishing touch. The heart of London is manifested in many kindnesses shown to the people and in the magnanimous provision of free education for three hundred years.

County Londonderry is roughly an equilateral  triangle with THE BANN as its eastern boundary, the sea and Lough Foyle on the north and the THE RIVER FOYLE AT BOOM HALLSperrins on the south-west. The Bann and Foyle are noble rivers. Both were known to Ptolemy, the third century Greek geographer. The Bann is a pastoral stream. "Sweet Bann flow gently till I end my song." Known to Ptolemy as the Argita, "the silver river," this sweet stream has always been a high-way into Ulster. The first men, when the ice cap melted ten thousand years ago, found a footing by its banks, as evidenced by the stone age relics, and bronze age ornaments show that succeeding races hugged its shores. Its fords are a primer of the past. It bears in its broad waters a wealth of salmon and eels that have made it the desire of men of all time, and not least of the monks who once lived on its banks. St. Patrick taught the people in the Bann vall to fish by day, and, shall we add, to stop poaching ! This river is a river of mysteries. Its margin ooze abounds in countless millions of diatoms, little plants that under the micro-scope dazzle us with their geometric beauty. These, dying, form the clay (Kieselguhr) that occurs in commercial quantities in the neighbourhood of Lough Beg and Lough Neagh, and this is used as a base in the manufacture of explosives and confectionery. The Bann has splendid waterfalls with scenic beauty round them�the Salmon Leap, 11 miles south of Coleraine ; Carnroe, nine miles farther on ; Movanagher, three miles north of Kilrea, and Portna, one mile south of Kilrea. THE FOYLE, named from a Tuatha-de-danaan prince, is a noble river

" Where Foyle his spreading waters rolls northward to the main.
Here. Queen of Erin's daughters. fair Derry fixed her reign."


Its only tributary from County Londonderry is the Faughan, which, though small, is the outlet for the rains of a land of rare beauty that waits to be exploited, particularly by the motorist or the rambler.

THE ROE, "red river," flows through the centre of the county northward to Lough Foyle. Its valley is the great divide between the basalts on the east and the schists on the west. Its headstreams in the wild and fascinating Glenshane Pass and its wooded valley from Dungiven to Limavady combine to make it unique in scenic charm.

The Moyola is a fairy river, circling the sentinel peak of Slieve Gallion and flowing through a land of legend and of song to mingle its waters in Lough Neagh.

County Londonderry is a land of little rivers and of little brooks that
"chatter, chatter as they flow to join the brimming river."

Nor in its rivers alone is this county  attractive, but also in its mountains�lonely giants in the silent wastes.

THE SPERRINS are the southwest boundary, rising to 2,240 feet in Mount Sawel. When the dying day spills its Niagara of colour over these great hills, the thoughts that rise he too deep for tears. Besides the Sperrins another noble line of hills, THE CARNTOGHERS, runs like a spine through the county. meeting the Sperrins in the vicinity of Draperstown. It is possible to walk for fifty miles on hilltops from Downhill to Omagh in Tyrone without being once in touch with the haunts of men, and where the only company is the crowing grouse, the bleating sheep, the hovering hawk, and, perchance. a swooping eagle.

The mountain passes, or slacks, lead from beauty to beauty. The slacks of Faughanvale, Muff Glen, Loughermore, Lissan, Feeney, Moneyneany, Ballyness, Dunmore and Drumagully, have each a loveliness of peculiar charm.

Londonderry washes about ten miles of the shore of Lough Neagh, and thus can claim the unusual beauty of this great Lough, with its peculiar features. Its margins are very shallow. At times, strange boomings are heard as of distant artillery but really due to earth movements beneath the lake bottom. It has a fish almost peculiar to itself�the pollan, which lives on a shrimp that was once a deep-sea species, and it has a moth on its sandhills that is only found on dunes by the sea. The ornithologist will find Lough Neagh a paradise for birds, ducks (at least five species), the great crested grebe, terns, sandpipers, and the yellow wagtail (only found here and at Lough Corrib in Galway).

As fishing and sport are dealt with elsewhere, it is our function to show that Londonderry can take her place in the foreground as a happy hunting ground for the tourist, and, may we add, the man who is searching for happiness�and who is not ?

CASTLEROCK FROM THE STRANDA restful watering place five miles west of  Coleraine, is situated on the pure sands, and within ten minutes' walk of the noble estuary of the Bann. It has excellent hotels, whose windows are frames for panoramas of lovely seascapes. There is a championship standard golf course of 6,000 yards, and good rock and surf bathing. The bird life of the Bann Estuary and the mudflats up the river are of extreme interest to the ornithologist, as the Bann is a line of migration for the rare waders. The sand dunes beyond the golf links and the adjoining townland of Grangemore have yielded many antiquities of the stone and iron ages. Close to Castlerock is DOWNHILL and its palatial mansion, where that eccentric eighteenth century cleric and patron of the arts, the Earl of Bristol and Bishop of Derry resided. From Downhill a strand seven miles long extends to the peninsula of Magilligan and the mouth of Lough Foyle. This is a veritable paradise for the conchologist, 118 species of shell life having been found in one day, including some very rare species. The sands are also a popular venue for motor racing.

Inishowen lies across the bay, in sunlight like a patterned quilt, and in twilight like a cluster of purple grapes are its silent hills.

The peninsula of MAGILLIGAN is a most interesting field for study, and is of unique beauty. Its people are mostly of Danish descent, as the Danes once maintained a colony here. The botanist and the entomologist will also revel in its sand dunes and foothills. It was once known as the medicine garden of Europe." Magilligan was the home of one of Ulster's great harpers, Denis Hampson, whose instrument is still preserved. This district was called after the family of Magilligan, who were the hereditary farmers of the church lands of the monastery of Duncrun. Within half a mile St. Patrick and St. Columba founded churches. Here was St. Columba's favourite church. In the graveyard at Duncrun is one of the three remarkable oratory-shaped tombs, in this instance containing the remains of St. Aidan, it being assumed that the relics of the great Saint of Lindisfarne, were brought here by St. Colman, when he left Northumbria on the rejection of his tenets in 664 A.D. by King Aldf rid on the advice of Wilfrid, the King's adviser. Magilligan and the Lough Foyle littoral are like a little bit of Holland. Over the flat peninsula looms the fine peak of Benevenagh, on whose slopes Alpine plants are found and the raven and peregrine nest.

About three miles from Castlerock, on the Coleraine road, is the village of ARTICLAVE, which is the best starting point from which to visit the Giant's Sconce, the great fortress of the Red Branch Knights. In the immediate vicinity in 627 A.D. was fought the battle of Brae Slieve when the Pictish dynasty was overthrown. It is the centre of a district which was subject to frequent Danish invasion. There are fifteen souterrains in the parish.

The city with the name-poem " the  corner of the ferns" ; yes, city, for so it was called by St. Bernard of Clairvaux early in the twelfth century.THE BRIDGE COLERAINE Named by St. Patrick in the middle of the 5th century, it even then was a town of no mean importance, for it was the capital of the territory of the Picts, with its royal palace in Dun-da-bheann (Mountsandel) close by. It is the most interesting fort site in the county, and was the seat of the royal line of Rory Mor, of the Pictish dynasty about 100 B.C., who, in King Conor's reign as Ard-Righ at Armagh, held sovereignty over one third of Ulster. The festal pleasures of that royal dun are described for us in the Mesca Uladh, a section of the Book of Leinster. It was the king's citadel, but the parade and guard houses extended to the fields adjoining. This type of dun is only paralleled at Dundermott, near Clough, Co. Antrim, and is of the type found in Hungary and Bohemia. The old dun became in the 13th century the site of the castle of Kilsanctan, and round it many historical incidents took place, especially in association with Sir John de Courcy, who was virtually Kin of Ulster about 1200 A.D. Coleraine's first Bishop was Corpreus, who was educated at the Christian School at Candida Casa at Whithorn in Galloway. It has always been a town of distinction, one writer calling Coleraine "A lady of quality among towns." Yet perhaps its fame rests chiefly on a song " Kitty of Coleraine, published anonymously in 1810 in a Waterford chapbook.

This town has enjoyed the benevolent sway of the Irish Society of London for over three hundred years, and has reaped the benefit of superior education, fine public buildings, and generally has had a high level of social life. Coleraine was the home of the Lawrences of Indian fame, and of the artists, Hugh Thomson, that gentle artist of the delicate pencil, and Arthur David McCormick, the incomparable painter of mountain scenery.

Two miles south of Coleraine is CASTLEROE, more correctly Castle Rose�the castle of Rose O'Cahan. It is the site of the famous Salmon Fishery at the Salmon Leap in the most royal reach of the noble river Bann.

Three miles west of Coleraine on the road to Limavady is the tiny village of MACOSQUIN, the plain of the clear water." It has a great history, for here a Cistercian monastery was founded in 1172 and its Abbot, John, became Bishop of Derry. The road leading from Macosquin across the mountain gives scenic prospects of mountain, moor and sea that are on a spacious scale, the first view of the Foyle from,. the mountain top "bidding the rash gazer wipe his eye."

To-day the Borough of Coleraine is one of the most thriving business and market towns in Ulster. It is a good centre too for sport, for services of trains and omnibuses take one, within 20 minutes, to the golf links at Portrush, Portstewart or Castlerock. There are also tennis courts and bowling greens, and the Bann itself is famous for its rowing regattas.

THE OLD PRIORY CHURCH, DUNGIVENSituated in the valley of the Roe, is rich in ecclesiastical and historical interest, and stands in the midst of a lovely landscape of mountain, glen and stream. The fine peak of Benbraddagh looks down on it from the east, and to the south a cluster of mountains rising to Sawel and its twin peak, Dart, give endless vistas of valley and hill. The town is one of the best centres for fishing on the Roe and its tributaries.

The London Company of the Skinners were the influence here, and in its beautiful surroundings the old families of Ashe, Dodington, Cooke, Beresford, and Ogilby chose their homes. This land had its Robin Hood in the person of Shane Crossagh, who lived about 200 years ago, and whose exploits still form the theme of fireside stories in the glens.

About four miles south-west of Dungiven on the road to Londonderry is the typical lime-washed Irish village of FEENY. Near here is The General's Bridge, where the aforementioned Shane Crossagh held up General Napier with dummy troops. Three miles south of Feeny we come to PARK, a romantic village embosomed in the woods of Learmount. The settlers under the Plantation scheme knew where the beauty spots of the county were, and in the vicinity of Park there is the castle of the Beresfords, descendants of Sir Tristram Beresford, the first agent of the Irish Society of London.

The finest sculptured tomb in the north is to be seen in the Priory Church, being that of Cooey-na-Gall terror of the stranger"), who was a chieftain of the O'Cahans in the 13th century.

Eight miles west of Dungiven is CLAUDY, a village famed for its fairs. It is the key to the beauty of the Sperrin valleys and mountain scenery, which is a land of unspoilt beauty. Twenty little rivers laugh through this bright land.

11 miles south of Coleraine on the road to  Maghera, is a pretty town set amid undulating hills, on the outskirts of the Carntogher mountains. with the Errigal river flowing through.

The dominating influence here was the Canning family, of which George Canning was Foreign Secretary and Prime Minister of England in the early 19th century.

There are fine fishing rivers in the vicinity, the Errigal being the best salmon spawning river in the Bann valley. It is also an interesting centre for the antiquarian. At Slaghtaverty, about two miles S.E. of Garvagh, is a dolmen which marks the grave of Abhartach, dwarf, magician and musician, son of Aitherne, a first century poet laureate of Ulster. On the eastern slope of Carntogher Mountain in the townland of Knockoneill are dolmens and the stone circle marking the grave of Niall Glundubh. At Moneydig, three miles east of Garvagh, there is a perfect example of a burial chamber, known as The Daff." It is small, but the stonework is fitted so exactly that it is worthy of a visit.

In Ballyrogan Bog, two miles N.W. of Garvagh, a cauldron of the 5th Bronze Age (800 to 350 B.C.) was found.

Four miles north of Garvagh is AGHADOWEY, which means " Duffy's field," possibly from Dubhtach, Abbot of Derry, who died in 936 A.D. At one time there were eleven bleach greens in this smiling wooded district. From here in 1718 an extensive emigration to New England was led by its minister, Rev. James McGregor.

A fine, clean town, set on a hill overlooking the Bann Valley and near a cluster of little wood-embowered lakes, is one of the best known fishing centres in Ulster. In its vicinity the rare orchis, Irish Ladies Tresses. is found. It has associations with famous men�Rev. Matthew Clerk, a pioneer minister of the settlement of Cherryfield in New Hampshire in 1728 ; Father Dolling, well-known in London for his humanitarian activities ; the brothers Glasgow, one of whom, a famous portrait painter, painted Queen Victoria ; the other was known for his grandfather clocks. It is of interest that during the present great Bann drainage scheme dredging and excavations have disclosed in this vicinity many articles of extreme interest to the antiquary, chiefly of the Bronze and Copper Ages.

Seven miles south of Kilrea, partly in Co. Antrim and partly in Co. Derry, is the pleasant village of PORTGLENONE, near to which the remarkable diatomaceous clay or Kieselguhr is found.

Meaning " The Dog's Leap," from a traditional dog of O'Cahan, the chieftain, which jumped the Roe and conveyed a message hidden below itsIN THE GORGE OF THE ROE collar to the Dungiven branch of the sept, and thus was instrumental in bringing needed help. In the Plantation of Ulster, the immediate district around Limavady was given to the Kings agent, Sir Thomas Phillips, for "a cabbage garden," and Castledawson for his "duck-pond."

The valley of the Roe is of surpassing beauty, with deep gorges in the schistose rocks and wooded banks.

Near Limavady is the mound of Drumceatt ("the whale's back" from its shape) in Roe Park, at Mullagh Hill, once known as Gortinanima "the garden of the soul." It is hallowed ground, for there in 575 A.D. a convention was held under the presidency of St. Columba, which determined the future of the Kingdom of Scotland, and there Columba baptised baby Domhnail who was to overthrow the Picts in 627 A.D. Even prior to this great convention it must have been a sacred site judging by the tumuli and sepulchral mounds which have been found there.
Near Limavady, at Drumrammer, was born St. Canice, the great saint, after whom Kilkenny is named, and who founded St. Andrew's in Fife.

It was here, too, in more recent days that Thackeray wrote his well-known poem " Peg of Limavady," and where that great Premier of New Zealand, W. M. Massey, was born and educated.

It is of interest that The Londonderry Air," pronounced to be the finest melody in existence, was collected in Limavady by Miss Jane Ross in 1851, the then player being an itinerant fiddler named McCormick. Evidence points strongly to its author having been Rory Dail O'Cahan, described as " Lord of the Route and Limavady," who was the prototype of Rory Dail McMurrough in chapter 22 of Scott's "Waverley."

A short distance from Limavady on the road to Londonderry is the little village of BALLYKELLY, which has a parish church with a graceful spire, erected by the aid and guidance of the Earl of Bristol�Bishop of Derry. The fine wood of Walworth, containing some of the aboriginal timber of the country, is named for Sir William Walworth, a Governor of the Fishmongers Company of London, who, with his own sword, slew Wat Tyler, the rebel, in London.

Nearer Londonderry is EGLINTON, probably the most picturesque village in the county. It bears every sign of the cultured influence of the London Company of the Grocers. It is quite English in its appearance, embowered in magnificent trees and with old world cottage gardens. It was formerly called " Muff," but changed its name in 1858 in honour of the then Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, the Earl of Eglinton. It is at the entrance of the beautiful Muff Glen, which extends southwards and the road through which leads over Highmoor to the Ness Waterfall, the finest in the county, formed by the Burntollet river, which flows through a wide glen, once the hiding place of the highwayman Shane Crossagh�a glen of open glades and fantastic schistose rocks.

Northwards of Limavady is the charming little hamlet of BOLEA, in the valley of the Curly Burn. In this neighbourhood are the Dooans, a site of ancient funeral games, and by the stream is one of the few remaining examples of "the sweathouse,"an ancient form of Turkish bath. Also in this direction and on the coast road to Coleraine is BELLARENA, a centre of one of the most charming districts of Ulster. The splendid basalt cliffs of Benevenagh rise sheer to 1250 feet. The rock stacks, where the raven and peregrine nest, rise above the woods and from the top can be seen the pencilled plain of Magilligan lying below, the waters of Lough Foyle, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Inishowen Peninsula.

THE GLENSHANE PASS NEAR MAGHERA" The field of the solemn vespers," is  ecclesiastically considered a place of venerable antiquity. In the fifth century, St. Lurach (or Lowry) founded a church here. The 12th century structure that stood on the original site, though now a ruin, has the finest sculptured doorway in Ulster, representing the Crucifixion in crude but striking detail.

In the vicinity are Tirnoney dolmen, Tirkane sweat-house, and the ruins of the ancient churches of Killelagh and Mullagh (Termoneeny).

Maghera has produced famous men. Dr. Adam Clarke, the great commentator, was born at Moybeg, and Dr. Henry Cooke, a famous Presbyterian divine, was a native of the vicinity, and Charles Thomson, the framer of the Declaration of American Independence, was of Maghera origin.

Two miles south of Maghera, in the valley of the Moyola, is TOBERMORE, which means "the great well." Here was the church of St. Cronaghan, the tutor of St. Columba when a boy.

Also in the sweet vale of Moyola, and under the lee of Slieve Gallion, is DRAPERSTOWN, of historic interest as the centre of a districtTHE CLIFFS OF BENEVENAGH occupied by the victorious Collas, three brothers who came from Roscommon and are buried on the slopes of the mountain. St. Patrick founded a library at Ballynascreen (the parish in which Draperstown stands), but St. Columba transformed it into a church. The London Company of the Drapers did much to make this town architecturally distinguished. It is far in advance of the usual Irish town in planning and solidity and symmetry of buildings.

Southwest of Draperstown lies the district known as THE SIXTOWNS. They are the herenach or church farm lands of Ballynascreen parish. This was the centre of the legendary feats of the giant Finn MacCool and many heroes of the Celtic romance period.

" The plain of the rushes," is a fine market town, spaciously planned and of architectural prestige due to the influence of the Salters' Company of London, whose castle stood originally in the Diamond. It is a convenient centre for pleasant runs by Lough Neagh, Carndaisy Glen and other scenic spots.

On the shores of Lough Neagh, near Magherafelt, is the village of BALLYMAGUIGAN, where there was formerly a Moravian settlement, whose descendants still people that district, also BALLYRONAN, once a thriving little port on the west side of Lough Neagh, largely the result of the enterprise of the Gaussen family of Huguenot descent. The land was in the Salters' territory, and was known as the Manor of Sal.

South of Magherafelt is the fine market town of MONEYMORE, and northwards BELLAGHY, the old home of the Downings, a Devonshire stock, whose influence is still seen and felt in the district. Near Lough Beg, at Ballyscullion, once stood a palatial mansion of the Earl of Bristol, Bishop of Derry. Its portico now forms the entrance to St. George's Church, Belfast.


To the west of the estuary of the River  Bann, is ideally situated on the slope of a hill, semi-circular in shape. Its spacious promenade overlooks one of the most beautiful little bays in Ulster ; at one end nestles the Harbour and at the other towers the grim and gaunt castle of O'Hara. Beyond this, for about half-a-mile, are some majestic cliffs, round the top of which a walk has been constructed, and then commences a magnificent stretch of golden sand, extending for two miles to the mouth of the River Bann.

Perhaps one of the most essential features of Portstewart is its wonderful climate and salubrious air which is simply laden with the ozone of the"TRAINING FOR THE CHANNEL" at Portstewart Atlantic Ocean, giving it a highly bracing effect, yet it i.s soft and silky, the result being a delightful feeling of exhilaration.

Portstewart is deservedly one of the most popular and progressive seaside resorts in Ulster, as it caters exceptionally well for the holiday-maker. Good accommodation is available to suit every requirement ; its bathing facilities are one of its chief attractions�a morning plunge in " The Herring Pond " or at " Portna-happle " exhilarates to a marvellous degree, and at the Crescent�just at one end of the Promenade�facilities are available for non-swimmers and " The Toddlers," and the delights of surf bathing can be enjoyed to the utmost at the stretch of sand referred to previously. Public tennis courts are provided, and there are two excellent golf links�both of 18 holes. Apart entirely from the sporting qualities of each of these links, their ideal situation commends them to all. The shorter links is only a few minutes' walk from the centre of the town and is greatly patronised by ladies and those preferring a short round. The championship links is about three-quarters of a mile from the town, to which frequent transport services are maintained. It is one of the finest and most sporting courses in Ulster.

All these amenities combine to make Portstewart a place of charm with a personality of its own which draws its visitors again and again.
The resort makes a convenient centre from which to visit the Giant's Causeway, Carrick-a-Rede Rope Bridge, Magilligan, the Glens of Antrim, the City of Derry, and the inland portions of County Derry.

Portstewart is keeping thoroughly abreast of the times, and has now added to its many attractions an up-to-date and suitable Town Hall. In addition, a large number of superior residences have been recently erected or are in course of erection on the seaward sides of the town.

Sir George White, of "Ladysmith" fame, was born at Rockport, between the town and the Strand, and the name of Charles Lever, the famous Irish author, is intimately associated with the district, for here he was dispensary doctor. His Lorrequer novels are said to contain the finest descriptions of military life that were written, and in his " Knight of Gwynne" there are many allusions to Portstewart and its people, and in fact many of the anecdotes recorded therein had their origin in this district, including the feat of jumping over horse and cart which Lever attributed to Charles O'Malley, at Lisbon, but was really accomplished by himself in the town of Coleraine.