Ulster 1935
The official Publication
of the Ulster Tourist Development Association Ltd.


County Tyrone.


WHEREVER Tyrone men meet, in Belfast or Glasgow, Liverpool, Leeds or London, New York, Toronto or distant Sydney, or in the loneliest part of the world, however different may be their social station, or divergent their political or religious views, a single slogan cements their friendship�"Tyrone among the bushes."

The modern County of Tyrone is not particularly well wooded, but in the old Kingdom of Tir-Owen, of which the county forms the central part, there were very extensive forests, up till the beginning of the 17th century, now well-cultivated arable land. The Kingdom of Tir-Owen was, partly for that reason, the strongest of the native territories which did not recognise the conquest by Henry II. of England until the reign of Henry VIII. The Irish Parliaments met but did not pretend to legislate for their Kingdoms ; the High Court was set up in Dublin in the 12th century, but the King's writ did not run in these Kingdoms ; most striking proof of all of their independence, the Kings claimed, and exercised to the full, the right to carry on war against each other. Until The O'Neill of Tir-Owen surrendered his sovereignty in 1542 for the position of Earl, took his seat in Parliament, and accepted English law for the old Brehon law, his authority was almost analogous to that of the Amir of Afghanistan.

"SUMMER IN TYRONE"It was this kingdom which was cut up into the three counties of Armagh in the South, Coleraine (afterwards Londonderry) in the North, leaving the middle slice to form the County of Tyrone. On the northern side are the Sperrin Mountains, the highest peak (Sawel, 2,240 feet) being on the boundary of Tyrone and Londonderry; and the moorland striking south divides Tyrone into two parts, which were at one time actually regarded as separate counties, while along the south, from east to west, is the fertile district commonly described as the Clogher Valley, which formerly was in the Kingdom of Oriel.

But enough of geography and history. " Let us get there," says the tourist. It is very simple�BOOK THROUGH TO BELFAST VIA HEYSHAM OR LIVERPOOL, and the journey is convenient as well as speedy. For example, the traveller can leave London at 6 p.m., dine comfortably on the train (first or third class), and arriving at either port, go aboard and turn in before midnight, getting a good night's sleep before reaching Belfast Lough. Breakfast on board and take the Great Northern train at 8-25 a.m. for Londonderry. Thus Dungannon, the old capital of Tir-Owen is reached at 9-31 a.m. ; Omagh, the county town, at 10-13 a.m., and Strabane, on the Free State border, at 10-40 a.m. These are three of the towns of Tyrone which are Urban Districts, the fourth being Cookstown, which can be reached by the branch line from Dungannon at 10-10 a.m., or earlier and more speedily by the L.M.S. line from Belfast over the new loop line, opened on 17th January, 1934, by the Governor of Northern Ireland, and costing �250,000, to cut 20 minutes from the journey.

Scottish tourists can, with equal convenience, travel by steamer from Glasgow or Ardrossan, while travellers who want to reduce the sea voyage to a minimum can cross from Stranraer to Larne, with a trip on the open sea of only 1 hours.

The Road System.
So many tourists bring their own cars,  nowadays, for which the cross-Channel steamers specially cater, and others prefer bus routes for their sight-seeing, that the road system of Tyrone may be briefly described. All told, there are 3,200 miles of county roads in Tyrone, of which 140 miles are Class A, with gradients and surfaces equal to the average main road in Great Britain. There are 260 miles of Class B roads not yet all brought up to the same standard, on which some severe hills and bad patches may be en-countered ; the rest are good, bad and indifferent; but it should be noted that many of these, in sparsely populated areas, have excellent surfaces because they are so little used.

The classified roads A and B are distinguished, as in Great Britain, by numbers, making it easy for the motorist to follow the correct route from one signpost to another. There are three main arteries of Class A roads, inter-connected by B roads, and these follow the three divisions of the county already mentioned.

A 4, which starts at Belfast, enters Tyrone by crossing the Blackwater at Verner's Bridge, and passing through Dungannon, runs westward, traversing the Clogher Valley. At Augher it is joined by A 28 (from Newry) and proceeds to Enniskillen.

A 5, which starts at the port of Londonderry, follows the Valley of the Foyle to Strabane, and running south passes through Newtownstewart and Omagh, and thence via Ballygawley to Aughnacloy and the Free State frontier, while a branch (A 32) runs from Omagh south-west for Enniskillen.

A 29, which starts at Portrush, is joined by A3l from Belfast, skirting Lough Neagh on the north, before it reaches Tyrone. Passing through Cookstown it runs via Stewartstown and Coalisland to Dungannon, and thence to Moy, entering Co. Armagh.

There are a few short branches classified as A roads, but those mentioned are the through routes which can be depended on as good motoring roads ; they are inter-connected by Class B roads, most of them bus routes, and by a net work of District roads.

The Urban Districts.
There are four principal towns n Tyrone, which are Urban Districts, and all are  provided with good hotels. The tourist should make one or more of these towns his headquarters, each being the centre of an area peculiarly its own. We will take them in alphabetical order, and describe what is to be seen.

Is a terminus of the G.N. Railway and the L.M.S. Railway lines, and is on A 29 road close to the Londonderry boundary. The town is an earlyLOUGH FEA NEAR COOKSTOWN example of town planning, having been laid out in the middle of the 18th century, with the main street 130 feet wide, and stretching in a straight line for 1 miles. To the north, five miles off, as a background to the town, lies Slieve Gallion mountain (1.760 feet), which can be easily ascended, even by car to the top, though the road is rough. On the summit is a cairn marking the burial place of Colla Uais, the 3rd century conqueror of Ulster.

Archeologists will find in the district to the west of Slieve Gallion, which is a spur of the Sperrins, a great deal to interest them, and much yet unexplored. Sufficient to say that the latest theory of the Bronze Age invaders is that they landed at Torr Head in Co. Antrim, travelled along the coast to Portrush, and moving inland along the mountain ridge, left a trail of dolmens till they reached Dun Rua, a Bronze Age cemetery 12 miles west of Cookstown, in the townland of Crock�a name given by them to the hill tops. Geologists are working at the same area in which they hope to find the solution of problems regarding the Highlands of Scotland and of Scandanavia.

There is a golf course (9 hole) in Killymoon Demesne, reputed to be the best inland links in Ireland ; close beside it is Killymoon Castle, built by John Nash, the architect of Regent Street, at a cost of �80,000, and sold a few years ago for �100.

THE BALLINDERRY RIVERAbout ten miles from Cookstown, in the easterly direction, a frequent bus service takes the tourist to Lough Neagh. Halfway is the village of Coagh�on the Ballinderry, a fine trout river�the wide market place of which is named Hanover Square�a gesture by the then lord of the soil who, in 1728, having got a charter for a market, wished to identify his little town with the house of Hanover.

The bus stops a few minutes' walk from Newport Trench, a little harbour used by fishermen, where eels may be seen packed for Billingsgate, and pollan (the special Lough Neagh fish) for Manchester. A mile to the south is the tall stone cross of Arboe, one of the finest in Ireland, beside an old burial ground in which is a "wishing tree," and in the adjoining field the ruins of an abbey, destroyed in a raid by an enemy tribe across the Lough, three years before the Anglo-Normans first landed in Ireland. Three miles farther is Washing Bay, with its tradition of healing, and overlooking it the remains of Mountjoy Fort, built in the Elizabethan War.

Leaving Cookstown by A 29 road (which has a two-hour bus service to Dungannon), a run of 2 miles brings us to Loughry demesne, theTHE FAMOUS STONE CROSS OF ARBOE, near coagh Manor House of which is now the Government's residential Dairy School for farmers' daughters. Dean Swift was an intimate friend of the former owners, and the summer-house in which he used to pen his satirical attacks on whatever displeased him is shown to visitors. Of the adjoining Priory, nothing remains but the name, but across the road is Tullaghoge (Teloc-og) Fort, 600 feet high, where the Kings of Tir-Owen were inaugurated from the 12th till the 17th century, when the coronation stone was broken by Elizabeth's General, Lord Mountjoy.

Stewartstown, midway between Cookstown and Dungannon, was formerly a flourishing little market. A mile and a half distant is Drumcairne, the residence of the Viscount Charlemont, V.L., Minister of Education, and half a mile farther is the Irish seat of the Earl of Castlestewart, late M.P. for Market Harborough. Stewartstown, sleepy though it be, has done its share in providing outstanding men, the latest to be honoured by the King, Sir Stanton Woods, being a son of a local merchant. He was one of the team of doctors who were in attendance at His Majesty's recent illness.

A nine foot seam of coal, known as the Anaghmore coal, has been located at Lislea, two miles from Stewartstown, and is being mined on a moderate scale. It competes with the best English coal, and is in demand at 30/- per ton at the pit head.

DUNGANNON, THE ANCIENT STRONGHOLD OF THE O'NEILLSIs compactly built round the dun (or  fort) from which it takes its name, the natural strength of which, in the days before artillery, is evidenced by the steepness of the streets. It was the capital of Tir-Owen, and on the top of the hill was the Castle of The O'Neill, of which nothing but the name " Castle Hill " remains.

The Presbyterian Church in Scotch Street has historical interest as being the place where the Irish Volunteers net in September, 1783, to demand the independence of the Irish Parliament. Dungannon was created a borough by James I. for his first Parliament after the Plantation, but it was disfranchised by the Redistribution Act of 1885. Being the then capital, it became the Assize town, when the judges first went on circuit in Tyrone to administer English law, but subsequently Omagh took its place.

For the same reason�its prominence in the early part of the 17th century�Dungannon is strong educationally. One of the Royal Schools founded by James I. was erected here, and the Education Endowments Commission divided the revenue it enjoyed from the liberal grant of lands, with the Catholic Board of Education, which has an Academy in Dungannon. There is also a High School for girls, managed by the local education authority, for which a new school is being erected, and the Technical School, which has outgrown its present premises, is to have similar accommodation. At Donaghmore, two miles off, is a Convent Boarding School for girls.

Industrially, Dungannon has more than held its own in spite of the depression in the textile trade, its factories having been enlarged in recent years. The business of the town, too, has improved considerably in the last decade, the market being in a flourishing condition, to which the excellent bus services, in all directions, materially contributed.

Northland House, the splendid seat of the late Earl of Ranfurly, is close to the town.

There are also tennis clubs, hockey clubs, and golf links, to which visitors are welcomed.

Coalisland, three miles to the north of Dungannon. with a lively appearance, is an industrial town with many workers. Connected by canal with Belfast and Newry, it has the advantage of cheap freights, so that its corn millers and importers of building material and heavy goods can compete successfully with larger towns on the railway. It has also a thriving Fire Clay Works and a weaving factory.

Before reaching Coalisland will be seen, on the left, the extensive mine head works of the collieries, standing idle�a witness to the ambitious attempt to get at the coal which has been worked, at intervals, for 200 years. The under-lying clay, however, is used to an increasing extent for bricks, and the chimney stacks in the valley between Coalisland and Dungannon attest to the prosperity of this industry.

Benburb, an industrial village, six miles south of Dungannon, off the Caledon road, has, in the Manor House grounds, a fine sample of theTHE BLACWATER AT BENBURB "bawns" built by the early planters, and also the remains of O'Neill's Castle high over the Blackwater. Sanguinary encounters took place, both up and down the river, between the Irish and Scottish armies in the civil war, and at Battleford Bridge in 1646 a Scottish Army under General Robert Munroe was totally defeated by the Irish under Owen Roe O'Neill.

Castlecaulfield and Donaghmore, are two adjacent industrial villages a couple of miles from Dungannon. The former produces linen, and the latter soap and candles. The Rev. George Walker, the defender of Derry in 1688, was rector of Donaghmore, and the Rev. Charles Wolffe, the author of "The Burial of Sir John Moore," was curate of Castlecaulfield. Donaghmore owns a very good stone cross, on the public road, and Castlecaulfield has the remains of the castle erected in 1614 by Sir Toby Caulfield, the founder of Charlemont.

Moy (Or "The Moy" as the natives call it), on the beautiful river Blackwater, is a ten-mile run by A 29. The village was designed by the land-owner on a continental model, with a large square dotted with trees. Its horse fair (first Friday of each month) is the resort of remount officers from European countries when there are rumours of war.

Pomeroy, the highest town in Tyrone, eight miles from Cookstown, by B 4, has a weekly market well patronised by the hill folk, and the " hiring fair," on the Tuesday before 12th May and 12th November, is worth a visit. Geologists will be interested in the exposures of Silurian rock at Slate Quarry, six miles from Cookstown. Pomeroy is joined by B 43 with Dungannon, the road going through Carrickmore, across the bog land to Omagh, with a branch to Sixmilecross�an old coaching station, and Beragh, at one time named Lowry's Town.
The old road from Dungannon to Omagh passed Cappagh, where copper was once mined, beyond which was a district where a celebrated robber used to prey on travellers. A hill 901 feet high, with the name " Shane Bernagh's Sentry Box" is the only survival of his activities.

OMAGH AND THE RIVER STRULEIs the county town, and the administrative centre of Tyrone, with the fine Courthouse dominating the High Street, where the judges hold Assizes, but its gaol has been converted to less morbid purposes than of old. The town has a Military Barracks, the Mental Hospital for Fermanagh and Tyrone, the County Hospital, the Constabulary headquarters, as well as the County Council Offices, so that it has a relatively large official population, and is, in consequence, well equipped with the amenities of town life. It is also the centre of a large agricultural area.

Tourists can sample the wild scenery of the Sperrins by a circular tour from Omagh. Leaving by B 48, the road runs north through Gortin Gap (eight miles out), with hills on both sides up to 1,700 fret high. Proceeding by Garvagh Bridge, the road crosses a low spur of the Sperrins by Barnes' Gap�a wild bit of scenery, and turning right follows the Glenelly river on the south side to the village of Sperrin, which lies at the foot of Sawel (2,240 feet), the highest peak of the range, rather steep except for climbers. The return journey may be made down the north side of the valley through Cranagh to the pretty village of Plumbridge, lying in the hollow between two ranges of mountains. From here B 47 passes Corrick Glen, a famous beauty spot, to Newtownstewart, joining A 5, and back to Omagh through a good farming district.

Newtownstewart is the best angling centre in Tyrone, and numerous ruined castles in the district will interest the antiquarian. The road passes Baronscourt, the palatial residence of the Duke of Abercorn, who, as Governor of Northern Ireland, resides chiefly at the official residence at Hillsborough.

Fintona, nine miles south from Omagh (by B 122), is connected with the G.N. Railway by a horse-drawn tramcar. Six miles farther is Dromore, another typical Tyrone village. From here the picturesque road runs north to Drumquin, and the tourist can either return to Omagh by B 50 (9 miles) or continue to Castlederg which lies in a remote but fertile plain on the Derg river. A steam tramway connected the town with the G. N. Railway (8 miles). The Woollen Mill at Spamount is the principal industry.

The largest town in Tyrone, and formerly a borough, has a considerable population engaged in shirt and collar making. Standing on the MourneTHE RIVER MOURNE AT STRABANE (an extension of the Foyle and tidal as far as Strabane), the town has a canal connecting it with the port of Londonderry ; and two railway lines, one on each side of the river also connect it with the same city. It is also the gateway to Co. Donegal (now named Tirconail), the network of light railways in which county emerge at Strabane.

Across the river is Lifford, the small Assize town and capital of Co. Donegal, and on the bridge connecting the two towns can be observed the working of the Customs officers on both sides.

The rich plain of Raphoe, lying across the river from Strabane, was originally part of the Kingdom of Tir-Owen, but was leased by The O'Neill to The O'Donnel, King of Tirconail. It is of it that the story is told that O'Neill sent, a curt message to O'Donnel " Pay me my rent or--," to which O'Donnel made the equally curt reply : " I owe you no rent, and if ..." Whether true or not, it is certain that O'Donnel proceeded to build a castle opposite Strabane, in 1526, and when O'Neill hurried with his army from Dungannon to prevent it he found himself helpless, and abandoned the attempt to hold his territory, which, on the shiring of these two kingdoms, became part of Co. Donegal, and consequently is now in the Irish Free State.

Sion Mills, four miles south (A 5), is the seat of a flourishing and extensive spinning industry, whose workers live in a model village there. The parish church is worth a visit by students of ecclesiastical architecture.

At Carricklee, one mile from Strabane (B 85), is a fine golf course, and the point-to-point races here are the most popular fixtures of the sort in Tyrone.

Donemana, to the north of Strabane (B 49), has a picturesque ruined castle named Earl's Gift. It is in a prosperous agricultural district ; Scottish words and forms of speech are still common amongst the descendants of the original settlers.

Clogher Valley.
In South Tyrone from the Armagh  to the Fermanagh Border runs the beautiful Clogher Valley. It traverses perhaps the best wooded and agricultural areas in the county. The first village along this route is Caledon, a picturesque hamlet 10 miles south of Dungannon (B 45), situated in a good pastoral country. The seat of the Earl of Caledon is nearby.

 Augnacloy, almost on the border of Co. Monaghan, is another 10 miles run from Dungannon (by B 35). It is the only place in Tyrone under a Board of Town Commissioners, who own the markets and generally make enough to avoid a rate for lighting, cleaning and other services under the Towns Improvement Act. It is the headquarters of the Clogher Valley Railway.

Dungannon is joined to the Clogher Valley by A4 road from Portadown to Belfast. Skirting the hilly land in the centre of the county, it joins A 5 (from Londonderry) at Ballygawley, a little market town. Thereafter the road is shared with the primitive light railway, whose trains at one place run along the side of theroad, and ever and anon disappear through the hedge to avoid too stiff a gradient, re-appearing on the road farther on, while at Fivemiletown the train takes the centre of the main street. The rolling stock has been recently supplemented by a couple of Deisel engined cars for passengers. William Carleton was a native of the district, which supplied him with the material for his "Traits and Stories of the Irish Peasantry," and other tales, racy of the soil.

KNOCKMANY CAIRN, AUGHERAugher and Clogher, adjacent villages on the route; were boroughs, returning members to the Irish Parliament. The latter was also the original Cathedral town of the diocese. The present building is modern, but in the church and in the churchyard the antiquarian will find much of interest�the Clogh-or, from which the church took its name, and believed to be a pagan idol, is one of the objects of interest. The archaeologist will find in Knockmany, a rather steep hill a few miles off, stone memorials of a long past civilisation.

Fivemiletown is the last station on the Clogher Valley Railway in Co. Tyrone before it comes to Co. Fermanagh . It is a neat little village, with a good golf course. Close by is Blessingbourne, the seat of Major-General Hugh de F. Montgomery, and the birthplace also of his brother, General Sir Archibald Montgomery-Massingberd, Chief of the Imperial General Staff, and of Sir Hubert Montgomery, British Envoy and plenipotentiary at The Hague.

Afoot in Ulster.


COME ! Let's away for a tramp round Ulster, away from dull bricks and pavements of cities and towns, out across the moors and down the valleys. The countryside is beautiful ; let us enjoy it, and enjoy it in the way which many of us consider the best�on foot. Let us wander at will over the purple heather of the Mourne or Sperrin Mountains, down those shady glens of Antrim, peeping in at the open door of a white-washed cottage here and there to bid the time of day to the kindly peasant folk within.

This time I shan't ask you to pack your rucksack or don your nailed boots. Our ramble just now will be but in fancy�a hike of the imagination ! We shall have all the fun of an open-air tramp without those blistered feet or that aching back !

Starting from Belfast we shall first turn our faces southwards to where the blue peaks of the Mournes rise out of the Irish Sea. The Mourne range is fascinating country for walking, but let us not be in too much hurry to reach it or we shall be apt to miss, as so many others have done, that stretch of countryside lying right in the heart of County Down between Slieve Croob and the main mass of the Mournes. It is a little district which somehow seems to have been overlooked, but it is perhaps to this circumstance that it owes its charm of unsophistication.

If we make our way to the crest of Slieve Croob we shall have a magnificent view of the whole of County Down and far beyond. Away northwards lie the hills of Antrim, and to the west the pale sheen of Lough Neagh melts into the blue of the hills beyond. Nearer at hand is Belfast Lough, and just over there, to the right, Strangford Lough up which many centuries ago the Danes sailed in their strange craft to settle and give the Lough its name. Into that same Lough, too, sailed St. Patrick to land at Saul and start his Christian mission. Southwards, glittering in the sun, are the waters of the Irish Sea, and the bold outline of the Mournes � Donard, the jagged peaks of Slieve Bearnagh, and further off, just appearing through the Hare's Gap, the massive granite tops of Slieve Bignian. Right below us dotted with little white-washed farm houses and cottages lies the enchanting district of Legananny.

The hummocky surface of Co. Down  has been compared to a basket of eggs, and nowhere is the simile more apt than here.

Descending from Slieve Croob over the peaty top of Cratlieve we come to the ancient cromlech, standing as it has done for centuries, to mark the tomb, perhaps of a once-powerful Druid King. It is historic as well as pretty this countryside, and we shall pass the scene of many a battle of long ago. It is a spot where we might linger for days, but just now we must hurry onwards, for we have much to see on our tour and the call of the Mournes is strong.

The" Kingdom" of Mourne,
As this district is generally called, has a folk lore all its own ; it is a kingdom  apart, with its own traditions and its  own humour. It is, too,A YOUTH HOSTEL IN THE MOURNES probably the finest tramping country in Ulster, if not in the whole of Ireland. Its mountains offer an endless variety of walks and climbs. Slieve Donard, the highest peak in Ulster, rises to 2,800 feet, and there are a dozen others over 2,000 feet. To those who wish to get away from things mundane, the Mountains of Mourne are a heaven-sent refuge. Here we may wander at will for days on end through glorious valleys and over rugged heather-clad peaks without once meeting either man or beast. Who could forget a tramp on a summer morning from Poulaphouca�the `" Glen of the Fairies "�through the Hare's Gap and by the goattrack�the " Brandy Path " of the old smuggling days�along the slopes of Slievenaglogh to the "Castles" of Commedagh, where nature has outstripped man in her construction of a mighty battlement of towers and turrets of solid granite ? Or who could forget a walk by moonlight up the valley of Dunnywater to watch the quivering disc of the moon on the deep waters of the Blue Lough ?

It is well, then, that the Youth Hostel Association has provided four hostels in this beautiful district�all of them in perfect situations. Slievenaman hostel is just below the Hare's Gap, the natural gateway to the mountains from the north. Bloody Bridge Hostel is built amidst the heather of Slievenagarragh, after the fashion of a mountain chalet with the front entirely of glass, to afford an uninterrupted view over mountains and sea. The most southerly hostel is at Killowen, the birth place of Lord Russell, perhaps England's greatest Lord Chief Justice. It is built on Gilbert's Hill on a lovely site by the shores of Carlingford Lough.

Leitrim Lodge Hostel�formerly a shooting lodge�lies in a most lovely valley mid-way between Slievenaman and Killowen.
It is hard to leave this spot "where the Mountains of Mourne sweep down to the Sea," but we must hurry on to Camlough,

En route for the Lake District of Northern Ireland. On our way thither let us take a glimpse at another of those pretty, out-of-the-way and little-known places�the Camlough country in County Armagh. This district amidst the most westerly spurs of the Mournes is well worth exploring, and rejoices the heart of the traveller on foot who wishes to get off the beaten track. He has only to climb from the shores of the lake to the summit of Slieve Gullion, throw himself down on the soft heather, and let his eyes wander over the pleasant hills and Carlingford Lough to revel in the beauty of nature.

Clogher Valley.
One of the glories of Northern Ireland is in the diversity of its scenery. When we leave  southern Armagh for County Fermanagh, we pass by way of mid-Armagh and South Tyrone, along the beautiful Clogher Valley. For those who are wishful of a rather less strenuous type of walking, this district has a strong appeal.

The County of The Lakes.
We travel west-wards through a rich pastoral countryside to Fermanagh, whose great attraction is the Upper and Lower Loughs of  Erne, studded with tiny tree-covered islets and surrounded by a richly wooded country. The lakes are perhaps seen at their best from a boat, but for the rambler not wishing to leave the shore excellent walks abound everywhere.

Just here the camper scores over the walker who must return at nightfall to the shelter of an hotel. Camping by the shores of these lakes is exhilarating, and our first amble through the woods along the lake shores in the cool of the evening will not readily be forgotten. Even the least romantic must be moved by the sight of those great trees silhouetted against the clear sky, and the still waters of the lakes running into innumerable little bays and creeks that make the picture seem almost unreal. There is an endless outlet for exploration in this charming corner of Ulster.

The Sperrin Mountains.
Travelling northwards and eastwards  from the Lakes of Fermanagh, we soon  strike the great Sperrin Range, covering large tracts of North Tyrone and South Londonderry. The country has changed again and we are now amid rolling moorlands�a wild country that offers a fine range of walks for those who desire the gentle slopes. At the head of richly wooded Faughan Valley, almost under the great mass of Sawell, the highest peak in the Sperrin range, another Youth Hostel has been provided. This hostel�Tamnagh Lodge�was also a former shooting box. Dropping down from the northerly foot-hills of the Sperrins we reach The Valleyof the Roe,

Which runs through Limavady to Lough  Foyle. We may either follow the stream down to the Dog's Leap in the " Gorge of the Roe" or keep to the high ridge of hills to the west. In either case we should not fail to climb Benevenagh, the final rise of the ridge, and explore the great cliffs which extend from Bellarena to Downhill.

The Coast and Glens of Antrim.
ABOVE GLENARIFF GLENAnd now we come to County Antrim,  possibly the best known of all the counties  of Ulster�and not without reason. It is  true it does not possess the awe-inspiring granite peaks which are the glory of the Mountains of Mourne, but it has sixty miles of an incredibly beautiful coastline and quiet beauty in its lovely glens. There is music even in its names, listen � Portaleen, Corrymeela, Trostan, Crockaneel, Bohilbrega.

I think the best way for the shuler to see North Antrim is to follow along the tops of the giant headlands � the Giant's Causeway, Kenban Head, Fair Head (by the Grey Man's Path), Tor Head and all the rest of them. From the top of the cliffs we may see the great Atlantic breakers dashing themselves against the rocks far below, and watch the gulls circling like small white butterflies over a sea of deepest blue. Out across the waters of Moyle is Rathlin Island, and beyond the pale blue hills of Scotland. Here and there between the headlands little shingly bays come running in, tempting us to bathe in the clear water.

At Glenariff we shall turn inland to explore the glen, and then for the rest of our wanderings southwards keep to the high ridge which runs parallel with the coast, dropping down to the little seaside hamlets only at nightfall. Skyline walking has a particular fascination, but those who prefer the road will find an excellent main road which hugs the sea-shore all the way from Cushendall to Larne, and they will discover lots of interesting things on the way. The road itself was built as a relief work during the great famine of 1844/47, and at Garron Point a memorial has been cut in a rock face by the side of the road to the Quakers who sent over maize from England during those terrible years.

In County Antrim there are five Youth Hostels�on the shores of White Park Bay, near the Giant's Cause-way ; at Ballyvoy, within easy reach of Fair Head ; in Glendun, near Cushendun ; at Parkmore, at the head of Glenariff, almost 1,000 feet up ; and at Straidkilly, overlooking the Bay of Carnlough. What can be more enjoyable after a long day on the hills than to gather round the common-room fire and exchange experiences with others like yourself who travel afoot.

Our magic carpet (or magic boots ?) has given us a brief glimpse of a little of the beauty of Ulster, but to appreciate it we must wander through it leisurely. Only thus can we get really to know it, and to know it is to love it.

Golf in Northern Ireland.
Chairman Ulster Provincial Council of the Golfing Union of Ireland.

APART from the excellent golfing qualities of many of the courses�some, indeed, are world famous the visitor will find two marked features of golf in Northern Ireland--its comparative cheapness and its lack of congestion. Seldom will he be called upon to pay more than 4/- per day in green fees, except perhaps on Saturdays and Sundays at certain links ; and he will find that the average fee is 2/6 or 3/6 per day. Weekly tickets vary in cost between 10/- and 30/-, and in some places there are concessions to visitors staying at certain hotels. Fees for caddies, too, are cheap as compared with those in force at British or Continental holiday resorts, and the caddies themselves are alert and intelligent. As for congestion, it scarcely exists. At one or two seaside courses during the summer months the time-sheet for starting is brought into operation, but for the remainder of the year a days golf may be played at these courses without the slightest "hold-up." Even at the suburban courses in Belfast the visitor will find it possible to get a game in comfort and without delay, provided, of course, that he does not seek to play a round in the late evenings when the members are out in full force.

The visitor's choice of golf in Northern Ireland is not restricted. He may play on the celebrated seaside links at Portrush, Newcastle, Castlerock or Portstewart, or he may sample the excellent inland golf provided in Belfast and elsewhere.

Taking the seaside links first, those of the Royal Portrush Club on the shores of the Atlantic, near the famous Giant's Causeway, may be specially mentioned. The club has three courses, of which the longest (or No.1) .one of the most spectacular in the world, and is destined to become one of the world's greatest. It was opened for play at Easter, 1933, being laid out partly on land occupied by the old course, and partly on new country. It is about 6,500 yards long, and is capable of being "stretched" to about 7,000 yards, and it not only embodies all the most modern ideas of golf course architecture, but affords views of land and sea that are not to be excelled for grandeur in any part of the British Isles. It is a championship course par excellence, but by deft manipulation of the enormous acreage of land available the designers have arranged the fairways and the hazards in such a manner that the holiday golfer can enjoy himself to his hearts content without encountering exceptional difficulties. The No. 2 course is mainly (but not wholly) for ladies, and, if it were not for the proximity of the No.1 course, it too would be reckoned of championship class. And then there is a short course for beginners and others.

The No.1 course will, in September 1935, be the venue of the Irish (Open) Amateur Championship, one of the most important events of the golfing calendar in the British Isles, the holder of the title being the fine young Scottish golfer, Hector Thomson.

While at Portrush, the visitor must sample the qualities of Castlerock and Portstewart, both of which are within a few minutes' drive by car from Portrush, and both of which have been the venues of several Irish championships, amateur and professional. They are both excellent courses and are well kept, while the club house accommodation leaves nothing to be desired. Then, in the same area, there is Ballycastle, a pleasant course, partly seaside and partly inland, in one of the most charming holiday resorts in Northern Ireland.

In the southern part of the province there is New-castle, the home of the Royal County Down Club. This is a course of the truly majestic type. Not anywhere in the world are there to be found more gigantic sandhills, and the spaciousness and graciousness of the whole place are features which must impress even the most unimaginative of golfers. The course is about 6,400 yards long, and can be "stretched" to nearly 7,000 yards. It is constructed in two " loops," and affords a complete test of a golfer's skill, especially with his wooden clubs. It was the scene in September, 1933, of the first four-cornered amateur international golf tournament ever held in Ireland, and it has been frequently the venue of championships, including the ladies.

This year (1935), Newcastle will be the venue of two big championships�the Ladies' (24th�31st May), and the Open Championship of Ireland (23rd�26th July).

Of the other courses in Northern Ireland, of which there are about 55, that of the Royal Belfast Club at Craigavad, may now be mentioned. Royal Belfast is Ireland's premier golf club, having been founded in 1881. It started its career at The Kinnegar, Holywood, then it migrated to Carnalea, on the shores of Belfast Lough, near Bangor ; and a few years ago it purchased a lovely estate at Craigavad, also on the shores of the lough. The course is about five or six miles from the City of Belfast, and is easily reached by train or motor vehicle. Craigavad is not a truly seaside course in that the turf is of an inland type, but it is dry and springy and the greens are excellent. The course is laid out in two loops, is of good length (6,140 yards), and while hilly is not fatiguing. It is picturesque to a degree, and commands lovely. views of Belfast Lough and the Co. Antrim coast. he clubhouse is the most imposing in all Ireland, being a country mansion converted, Lawn tennis on specially constructed hard courts is a feature of club life at Craigavad as well as the golf, and there are magnificent gardens and woods.

Belfast itself has eight courses, of which the majority are of eighteen holes. They are all extremely convenient to the city, the municipal transport (tramways or omnibuses) passing the gates of most of them. They are :�Malone (5,900 yards), a beautifully situated course on the southern outskirts of the city, and the venue of the Open Championship of Ireland, 1933 ; Belvoir Park (6,400 yards), a comparatively new course in the picturesque demesne of the same name owned by Lord Deramore, and destined to be possibly the finest inland course in Ireland Knock (6.100 yards), adjoining the famous Ards Circuit, on which the Royal Automobile Club's Tourist Trophy Race is run ; Cliftonville (18 holes), breezily situated near the slopes of the Cave Hill ; Balmoral (18 holes), on the southern outskirts of the city ; Shandon Park (18 holes) ; Ormeau (9 holes), situated in one of the city's public parks ; and Fortwilliam (18 holes), on the north side of the city, sheltering under the Cave Hill, and enjoying glorious views.

Near Belfast there are numerous other courses, notably Holywood (18 holes), while most of the provincial towns have golfing facilities close at hand, too.

The flourishing and progressive seaside resort of Bangor, Co. Down, has three 18-hole courses within easy reach. One, belonging to the Bangor Golf Club, is practically within the boundaries of the borough. It has recently undergone extensive alterations ; indeed it may be said to have been altered out of all recognition, for additional land was secured and the course almost entirely re-designed and lengthened. The Bangor Borough Council maintains a public course at Carnalea, and at Conlig, near Bangor, an 18-hole course adjoins the demesne of the Marquis of Dufferin and Ava at Clandeboye. Further along the North Down coast there is a course of 18 holes at Donaghadee, a delightful seaside resort much in favour with Belfast people ; and another of 18 holes at Kirkistown Castle, on the shores of Cloughey Bay. Also in Co. Down are to be found the courses of the Ardglass Club (9 holes), and that of the Warrenpoint Club (18 holes). The last mentioned is in the vicinity of Rostrevor, one of the beauty spots of Northern Ireland.

On the Co. Antrim side of Belfast Lough may be mentioned the 9-hole course of the ancient town of Carrickfergus. The busy and flourishing town and seaport of Larne has two courses, both of 9-holes, one on the outskirts of the town and the other delight-fully situated on Islandmagee, enjoying superb views of the Co. Antrim coast and (on clear days) of the Scottish coast.

Sunday golf is not universal in Northern Ireland, but it may be enjoyed in many districts. At most of the courses mentioned above it may be played, but without caddies, Warrenpoint and one or two others being the exceptions.

Alphabetical List of Golf Clubs

Further information regarding Green Fees, etc., can be had from the various Secretaries, and also from the Offices of the
Ulster Tourist Development Association. Ltd. 


Holes S'dard Scratch Scores Green Fee Per Day


Sec., Capt. T. S. Forster, c/o Golf Club, Hon. Sec., R. W. Stuart,
3 Central Ave., Marlborough Park .
18 73 2/6
R. Stanley Drean, F.C.A., Ocean Bldgs., Belfast
18 76 2/6
A. H. McMillan, A.S.A.A., 113 Royal Avenue, Belfast .
18 70 2/6
James Campbell, 36 Hopefield Avenue.
18 72 2/6
Sec., Clubhouse, Dundonald, Co. Down.
18 73 3/-
C. S. Harden, Ardcoombe, New Forge Lane, Belfast .
18 73 2/6
J M. Russell, c/o Golf Club .
9  71 2/-
S. Nevin, Kingsden Park, Knock, Belfast.
18 73 2/6
Wm. H. Belford, Fleurville, Ballycastle.
18 71 3/-
J. Hadden, Cooleen, Ballyclare .
9 64 2/-
J. N. Lamont, Edenagrena, Ballymena.
9 71 1/6
BUSHFOOT (near Bushmills).
Joseph Black, Portballintrae, Bushmills
9 61 1/6
David Law, Hopefield, Carrickfergus .
9 70 2/-
Miss J. O'Neill, c/o Golf Club, Cullybackey
9 65 1/-
W. S. Ritchie, c/o Golf Club, Dunmurry
9 72 2/-
W. Byrtt, c/o Golf Club, Greenisland
9 70 2/-
LARNE (Course, Islandmagee)
T. A.Purdon, The Mount, Larne Harbour
9 73 2/-
David Logan, 37 Victoria Street, Larne
9 70 2/-
S. Wilson, c/o Golf Club, Lisburn
9 71 2/-
W. J. Wilgar, Northern Bank, Ltd Antrim .
9 71 2/-
PORTRUSH ROYAL (two Courses)
Capt. G. C. Nash, Clubhouse, Portrush
18 75 3/6
SHANE'S PARK . 6 66 -
J. L. T. McAdam, Argonaut, Windsor Ave., Whitehead
9 66 -
A. W. Emerson, 9 Woodford Terrace
9 70 2/-
H. C. Malcolm, Bengal Place, Lurgan
9 76 2/-
Alfred Lynas, B.A., Ardbree, Portadown
18 - -
G. C. Dickson, Tandragee
9 70 2/-
Lyle Reid, Belfast Bank, Downpatrick
9 70 2/-
W. E. Holton, Banbridge.-- R. W. Connor, Seapatrick, Banbridge .
9 73 2/-
Town Clerk. Town Hall, Bangor
18 72 2/-
J. A. Hurst, Golf Club, Bangor
18 - 2/6
BELFAST, ROYAL, Craigavad.
T. Phenix, Clubhouse, Craigavad
18 74 3/6
Miss E. Thompson, c/o Clubhouse, Clandeboye Golf Course, Conlig, Co. Down
18 74 2/6
J. W. MacMurray, Strangford, Co. Down
9 66 1/6
A. McMillan, Sec. Golf Club, Donaghadee
18 68 2/6
18 74 3/6
F. H. Rogers,  c/o Golf Club, Newcastle
18 - 2/-
J. McMeekan, Circular Road
9 74 -
J. L. Bennet, Helen's Bay. Co. Down
9 70 2/6
H. J. Small, Ardlee Avenue, holywood
18 70 2/6
W. E.  Anderson. Ardenza, Cloughey
18 73 1/6
David A. Boyd, Damlin Lodge, Mahee Island, Comber
9 71 1/6
SCRABO, Newtownards.
Hon. Secretary, Golf Club
9 67 2/6
SPA, THE, Ballynahinch.
John H. Mcllveen, Eden-a-vadle. Ballynahinch, Co. Down
9 69 2/-
Capt. Barcroft, c/n, Golf Club
18 71 2/6
Thos. Smith, Golf Club, Enniskillen
9 69 2/-
Major E. S. Hancock, c/o Golf Club Castlerock
18 73 2/6
F. A. Hare, 35 Chapel Road, Derry
18 72 2/6
KILREA . 9 65 -
PORTSTEWART (two Courses) 18 74 2/6
Secretary, c/o Golf Club 18 68 2/-
S. Thompson, 8 Howard Terra.
9 69 1/-
G. R. Lacey, Hibernian Bank. Ltd. Fintona
9 67 1/6
S. Gamble, Ph.C., Fivemiletown
9 68 1/6
J. D. Devlin, Loy Hill, Cookstown
9 69 2/-
W. Ross Henderson, Newtownstewart
9 64 2/-
J. Hoey, Ulster Bank, Ltd.- M. F. Donelan, Provincial Bank, Ltd Omagh, Joint Hon. Secs.
9 62 2/6
A. Gallagher. D.L.. Greenmount House Strabane
9 66 2/-
CO. DONEGAL (Irish Free State).
NORTH-WEST, Lisfannon, Fahan (8 miles from Derry City).
J. Thornton Towers. 6 Crawford Square, Londonderry
18 72 2/6

* Denotes Sunday play permitted.

In most Clubs Green Fees are increased on Sundays, Saturdays, and Public Holidays. Weekly and Monthly Tickets can be had at reduced rates.
A reduction in Green Fees for Ladies also exists in most cases, but they are debarred in some Clubs from playing on specified days and between certain hours.