For the Housewife's Kitchen File
The good Housekeeping Dictionary of Facts
The HOUSEKEEPING DICTIONARY OF FACTS
GOOD HOUSEKEEPING MAGAZINE
First Edition, Copyright 1926 by
GOOD HOUSEKEEPING MAGAZINE. THE NATIONAL MAGAZINE CO. ,LTD.
All rights reserved, including that of translation into
foreign languages, including the Scandinavian
Good Housekeeping Magazine, 153 Queen Victoria Street, London,
Made and Printed in Great Britian by Hazell,
Watson & Viney, Ld., London and Aylesbury
THIS book is the outcome of numerous
requests from readers of " Good Housekeeping " who,
finding the Housekeeper's Dictionary of Facts page a
veritable treasure of household lore, have asked that the
hints be collected and reprinted in a compact form.
Specially designed for the convenience of
the busy housewife, the book is pierced at one corner to
enable it to be hung. in the kitchen for quick reference,
and is provided with an " everclean " American cloth cover
from which stains can be quickly removed merely by a rub
with a damp cloth.
To assist the housewife further, the Facts
have been classified alphabetically under various
headings-Cookery, Laundrywork, including the Removal of
Stains, Repairs and Renovations, General Cleaning,
Household Recipes, Home Medicine, Nursery, Needlework-so
that she can tell at a glance where to find the required
Effective methods for waging war on
various household pests are to be found on pages 76-80.
As we desire collaborators as well as
readers, we have included a small section of blank pages
at the end of the book, so that additional labour- and
time-saving hints can be added as discovered.
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STAINS AND THEIR REMOVAL
Always employ the least harmful methods first, and if not
successful, then use the more drastic methods.
Cotton and linen are comparatively easy to deal with, but silk
and wool require more careful treatment. Unknown stains are
not quite so easy to remove, as one or more methods may have
to be tried before success is achieved.
CANDLE-WAX ON NON-WASHING MATERIAL
Scrape off any that can be removed, place a piece of
blotting-paper underneath and above the stain, and press with
a warm iron. The heat melts the wax and it is absorbed into
the blotting-paper. With some pale and delicate fabrics it is
better to spread French chalk over the stain before covering
with the blotting-paper.
COD LIVER OIL STAINS
Cod liver oil stains, not infrequently found on children's
clothing, are often difficult to remove. It is advisable to
treat the stain before it reaches the wash-tub, as after
laundering it is very resistent and often impossible to
remove. Place the affected part of the garment over a small
saucer and pour over come carbon tetrachloride, allowing the
material to remain in contact with the liquid and rubbing it
well in with a piece of white muslin. Whilst the carbon
tetrachloride still remains on the garment, wash, using plenty
of warm soapy water and rubbing on a little hard soap if
necessary. If any sign of the stain remains when the garment
is dry, repeat the process.
Coffee stains, like tea stains, can generally easily be
removed in the ordinary process of washing and boiling. When
coffee is spilt on a coloured dress, which is unsuitable for
washing, the stain can usually be removed by treating with
glycerine. The glycerine can be easily removed with alcohol or
COPYING PENCIL STAINS
Copying pencil stains on silk, cotton, or woollen fabric can
generally be removed by soaking the fabric in methylated
spirit. If necessary, lightly brush the stained part with a
soft nail-brush, and rinse in a little clean methylated
The green colouring matter or chlorophyll should first be
dissolved in alcohol and then washed.
Gravy stain is usually a mixture of grease and meat juices.
Remove the grease as described below; should any mark still
remain, sponge gently, using soapy water.
GREASE OR WAX ON WASHING FABRICS
Scrape off any surplus wax with a blunt knife, wash and boil
in the ordinary way.
GREASE ON A NON-WASHING FABRIC
Remove by dissolving it in a suitable solvent, such as benzol
or petrol. Great care must be exercised in the use of these
liquids, as they are extremely volatile, the vapour being
highly inflammable. It should be remembered that the heat from
an iron might be sufficient to cause ignition, and on this
account it is advisable to - use such solvents in the open
air. Moisten a clean piece of cloth and rub round and round
the stain in circles, working from the outside to the centre.
This prevents the greasy stain from spreading. Continue to rub
until the moistened part is quite dry; in this way the grease
is removed. It may happen that a grease solvent is not
available; in that case rub on a little ammonia solution.
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FRESH INK STAINS
Dilute by washing at once in cold water, soak the stain in
sour milk, or add a little salt and lemon juice. The acid is
often sufficient to remove the iron stain in the ink, the
colouring matter comes out with washing and boiling.
OLD INK AND IRON-MOULD STAINS ON WHITE MATERIALS
These stains are quickly removed by covering with a little
salts of lemon and pouring on boiling water. A solution of
oxalic acid in water may be used equally well, but should not.
contain more than 1o per cent. acid. It is important to removej all trace of the acid from the fabric, and this can be
done by rinsing in water and then placing the affected part in
a solution of washing soda.
INK STAINS ON COLOURED MATERIALS
It is often possible to remove ink stains from coloured
materials by treating alternately with a solution of potassium
permanganate and either hydrogen peroxide or oxalic acid. A
few drops of each chemical should be applied by a glass rod,
or a small piece of unpolished white wood, to the affected
part. The permanganate should be used first, and allowed to
remain on the fabric for a few seconds only. The material
should then be rinsed in water and a few drops of either
oxalic acid solution or hydrogen peroxide applied in order to
remove the brown stain caused by the permanganate. It is
usually found necessary to repeat the above process several
When the stain is completely removed the material should be
rinsed very thoroughly in several different waters in order to
remove all traces of the chemicals. Although most coloured
materials can be satisfactorily treated with the
above-mentioned chemicals, the colour of others is affected,
and it is therefore wise to test their effect on an odd piece
of the material first.
Most red ink stains can be removed by treating with a strong
solution of borax.
Blankets and sheets often get stained with iodine during an
illness. This stain can be removed successfully if treated in
the following way. Dissolve a piece of washing soda about the
size of a walnut in an eggcupful of boiling water. Stretch the
stained part of the blanket over a basin or saucer and brush
in the soda solution until the stain disappears. Then wash
thoroughly in warm soapy water, taking care to remove all
trace of soda, for if allowed to remain in woollen goods, it
would cause them to shrink. Although this simple remedy rarely
fails, a very old and persistent stain might require the use
of thiosulphate of soda, known to photographers as hypo,
instead of common washing soda.
MARKING INK STAINS
Considerable difficulty is often experienced in removing
marking ink, particularly if left for some time. The following
treatment, however, is almost invariably found to be
satisfactory. Dissolve �
teaspoonful potassium permanganate in 1 pint of water. The
stains should be soaked in this solution for a few seconds.
The fabric must then be well rinsed in cold water, and the
brown colour remaining removed with either a weak solution of
sulphurous acid, oxalic acid or hydrogen peroxide. Completely
remove the chemical by thorough rinsing, and repeat the
process until the stains are removed.
With certain types of marking ink-those which require the
application of heat-a different process is necessary. First
apply a little iodine solution, rinse, and remove the iodine
stain with a solution of sodium thiosulphate. Cotton or linen
articles should afterwards be boiled.
If of long standing, this is extremely difficult to remove, as
the growth of mould fixes itself so intimately in the fibres
of the fabric. The safest method is to rub on a thick layer of
soap and French chalk, moisten and bleach in the sun. Salt and
lemon juice can be tried ; if both these methods are not
successful, Javelle water must be used.
PAINT AND VARNISH STAINS Apply turpentine or benzine. For
dresses and other fine materials, a mixture of two parts
methylated spirit to one part of turpentine is most
satisfactory. Old paint stains are sometimes very difficult to
get rid of, necessitating several successive applications of
the remover. Avoid spreading the paint by confining the
cleanser to the smallest area possible.
OIL STAINS ON DELICATE FABRICS
Moisten a ring round the stain with benzine, place a piece of
clean white muslin or cambric underneath, then apply benzine
to the stain itself, rubbing very lightly. The benzine
dissolves the oil and then soaks into the muslin. Great care
must be exercised in using benzine as it is highly
inflammable. For a particularly delicate garment, carbon
tetrachloride, though dearer, is more satisfactory.
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These can usually be successfully removed by treating with
In the case of white articles, these are usually removed
satisfactorily during the ordinary process of washing. If the
stains are old, however, the use of a little borax dissolved
in water is advised.
A SCORCH ON WHITE FABRICS
Methods which are sometimes successful are as follows: (a)
Bleaching in sunlight, keeping the scorched part wet with
soapy water, (b) Rubbing on powdered borax, (c) Soaking in
ammonia, (d) Applying Javelle water. If badly scorched,
however, no remedy will be found to be satisfactory, as the
fibres are actually destroyed.
The simplest methods should be tried first, and it is possible
to remove many stains merely by treating with cold or hot
water. If this is not successful and the article is white,
bleaching agents may be used. For cotton or linen, bleaching
powder or hydrogen peroxide may be used; for silk and wool,
however, the use of bleaching powder should be avoided. If the
stain proves still resistent, potassium permanganate solution
followed by hydrogen peroxide or oxalic acid should be tried,
following the directions given for the removal of marking ink
Stains on coloured fabrics are naturally more difficult to
remove, and bleaching agents should not be used before a small
piece of the material has been tested with the chemicals to
ascertain whether the colour is affected.
WINE AND FRUIT STAINS Wine and fruit stains are usually
found on table linen and, being of an acid nature, borax often
successfully removes them. Use the borax over a basin, pouring
on boiling water. If the stains do not entirely come out with
one treatment, repeat once or twice. Any slight remaining
discoloration rarely fails to disappear after boiling.
GENERAL LAUNDRY HINTS
A LAUNDRY BAG
The most satisfactory laundry bag can be made from a yard of
thirty-six-inch cretonne. Fold it lengthwise and shape it at
the top to fit over a coat hanger. On the front side, cut a
slit long enough to push the soiled clothes through, and bind
it firmly. Then cut the back side of the bag long enough to
enable you to turn it up at the bottom for a flap, which
should be fastened on the front side with five large snap
fasteners. With a bag made in this way, the bottom can be
unsnapped and the laundry dropped out without removing the bag
from the hook on the cupboard door.
A HANDY PEG-BAG
A labour-saving gadget for washing days can be manufactured at
home for a few pence. Make a bag of some strong material, such
as union ticking or cretonne, measuring 14 in. deep by 18 in.
wide, and leave sufficient material on the back to which a
piece of wood the same width as the bag can be stitched
firmly. A coat-hanger hook must be fixed to the centre of the
wood to enable the peg-bag, when hanging out, to be placed on
the line and moved easily along as required.
REMOVING LAUNDRY BLUE
To remove blue from an over-blued article is usually a fairly
simple matter. The most common laundry blue is ultramarine.
This blue is readily decomposed by dilute acids, and
consequently may easily be removed by steeping the garment for
a short time in vinegar and water. The soluble or liquid blues
do not usually respond to such simple treatment.
WASHING ROLLER BLINDS These can be washed without removal
from the roller. If possible place a wooden table out of
doors, spread the blind over it, and dust lightly to remove
surface dirt. Prepare a basin of warm soapy water in which a
tablespoonful of borax has been dissolved, moisten the blind
and scrub gently, using a soft nail brush. Rinse with plenty
of warm water, turn the blind and wash and rinse the other
side in the same way. Squeeze out as much water as possible by
rubbing a clean towel over the blind. Leave it to dry on the
table; when three-parts dry, iron. If the blind is required to
be stiffened and glazed it must be removed from the roller and
washed in the ordinary way, starched in thick boiling-water
starch, dried, ironed and glazed with a glossing iron. There
is less chance of roller blinds becoming stretched out of
shape if they are not removed from their rollers. When washing
coloured blinds, omit borax.
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Borax is a very useful and harmless alkali. It can be used to
soften the water for shampoos, and also for the washing of
toilet brushes. It is also valuable for removing discoloration
from old lace. The lace should be simmered in a solution of
borax and soap
and bleached in sunlight. A teaspoonful added to boiling-water
starch prevents the iron sticking, and gives a gloss.
TO PRESERVE BUTTONS
When valuable buttons are used on washing blouses and dresses,
they should be removed each time before sending the articles
to the wash. Quite a good plan is to sew through the holes in
the buttons alone, in the same manner as one does to fasten
them to the dress; then take small safety pins and pin through
the material, catching the thread on the button. The pins do
not show, nor does the button come off. This is not only a
great labour-saving device, but it saves the buttons as well,
and enables one to use the same buttons on various dresses.
Shake the covers or curtains to remove all loose dust, have
ready plenty of warm soapy water. Avoid the use of soap
powders or strong soap; a neutral one should be selected. Wash
the chintz articles one at a time, by hand. or with a suction
washer. The dirt is easily removed, as it is l the surface.
Rinse in warm water to remove the soap ; lastly, in cold water
to set the colour. When partly dry, fold and leave for a few
TO STIFFEN CHINTZ
Use thick boiling water starch. When lukewarm, put in the
chintz, wring out, and hang up until dry enough to iron.
Use a hot heavy iron, and if using a sad iron rub it with a
little beeswax. Iron on the right side of the material, taking
special care to dry the seams thoroughly. To gloss chintz, a
plain board of some hard wood is required; if this is not
available, remove the felt from under the ironing sheet and
use the table for a glossing board. To obtain a good gloss,
great heat, heavy pressure, slight moisture, and a hard
surface are essential. Glossing irons are curved at the heel
and toe, and to get an even gloss press the iron heavily
forward on the heel and lightly back on the toe. Air
thoroughly, and roll up; do not fold, or the appearance will
WHEN LAUNDERING CRETONNE
Cretonne covers and hangings that, are not required very stiff
may be passed through water in which rice has been boiled. The
quantity of starch present in the rice-water is sufficient to
give the desired stiffness.
A HOME-MADE CLOTHES DRIER
A drier for baby clothes, stockings, and other small articles
can be easily and cheaply made at home with four or five feet
of ordinary wire-netting one yard wide. Simply bend some of
the cut wires at one end, fasten them to the mesh at the other
end, taking care to turn under all edges, and you will have a
hollow cylinder which will only require two coats of paint to
make an excellent airer and drier. It is most essential to see
that the cut pieces of wire are completely covered with paint,
as by this means all iron-mould or rust stain will be
obviated. Being very light and easily moved, the airer can be
placed near a fire or radiator and turned frequently;
consequently the articles placed on it are quickly dried.
Anyone whose kitchen ceiling is too low to take a drying rack
may find this useful: Three ring-hooks may be screwed about 4
ft. apart in each of the ceiling beams. (The beams are not
always visible, but a handy an will soon trace them.) When you
wish to dry clothes, r strong string through the rings in
various directions, thus getting a long line.
CARE OF CLOTHES BOILERS
Whether of copper or galvanised iron, these should be kept
spotlessly clean and free from soap curd. In hard-water
districts this is not always easy. Scouring with any of the
well-known friction powders removes any deposit and frees the
metal from tarnish, but if scoured too frequently the zinc
wears off, exposing the iron. It is therefore an excellent
plan to scrub the copper well with the remaining hot soapsuds
to which a little ammonia has been added. Dry thoroughly
before closing the lid. Copper vessels should always be kept
clean from oxidisation, which spoils the linen.
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A CLOTHES-BOILER HINT
To protect linen that has to be boiled in a rough or rusty
boiler with a rim, a boiling-bag is excellent. Procure a
child's ordinary wooden hoop with the circumference slightly
larger than the top edge of boiler. Cut a circle of linen or
calico approximately the same size as the bottom of the
boiler, and a band of the same material of sufficient length
to reach round the hoop. The band should be cut as deep as the
boiler. Gather the lower edge of band into the circle; the top
edge should then be attached to the hoop. This makes a rigid
and very convenient lining.
A NOVEL CLOTHES-LINE POST To avoid the unsightly appearance
of a permanent post in the garden to take the clothes-line,
which may be required for a few hours only each week, a
1o-foot length of wrought-iron pipe, I inch in diameter, may
be used. This is inserted in a piece of pipe 1�
inches in diameter placed about 2 feet deep into the ground to
form a socket. The post may be put away out of sight when not
in use. The two lengths of pipe, 1o feet of 1 inch and 2 feet
of 1� inch, may be bought
at any gas or hot-water engineer's shop, and by plugging the
top of the long length with wood, a strong hook or ring can be
driven in to which to attach the line. When digging the hole
in the ground for the socket piece, it should be kept as small
as possible, the bottom of the pipe must rest on a brick or
stone, and other stones should be well rammed against the pipe
as the hole is filled in, to prevent it working loose.
A CLOTHES SPRINKLER
A washing-day help in the form of a clothes sprinkler can
easily be made at home. Take a wine bottle fitted with an
ordinary cork, in the centre of which make two small holes.
When the bottle is filled with water it can then be used for "
damping down" clothes prior to ironing, thus avoiding that
haphazard alternation of dampness and dryness which is the
result of using one's fingers as a watering medium.
Eiderdowns which have lost their first freshness can be washed
satisfactorily at home. Prepare plenty of warm soapy water and
wash by kneading and squeezing. The use of a longhandled
vacuum washer and a dolly tub is recommended. After rinsing
thoroughly they may safely be put through a rubber wringer,
and should then be shaken vigorously. If possible, choose a
windy day and dry out of doors. Continue to shake frequently
during and after drying to separate the down. Thorough airing
is essential, during which the eiderdown should again be
shaken in front of the fire. If the sateen cover looks creased
it may be smoothed very lightly with a warm iron before it is
MARKING EVERYDAY HANDKERCHIEFS
Use a piece of fairly stiff writing-paper, and write the
initials on it in one continuous line. Then pin the paper to
the centre of the handkerchief and stitch in the initials on
the sewing machine, making the stitches as small as possible.
Occasionally it is necessary to retrace part of an initial
when stitching, as in the letter, " C," but it is not
THE CARE OF SAD IRONS
Irons that are put away in a cupboard or hung on hooks in the
kitchen are very liable to rust. This happens more
particularly to those heated over a gas flame, because of the
quantity of water vapour always produced when coal gas burns.
If a pad of white ironing wax is kept in a handy place, such
as the drawer of the kitchen table, the iron, when partly
cooled, can quickly be rubbed over it. A pad can be made by
wrapping broken or odd pieces of candle inside a piece of
clean muslin or old handkerchief. A small piece of beeswax
rubbed over the hot iron makes it work more easily. If irons
become rusty or very dirty, they can be cleaned by being
rubbed with a halved potato which has been dipped into dry
WHEN IRONS STICK
It is a good plan to rub each iron on sand-paper or brick-dust
when the starch sticks, so that it does not remain to be burnt
on. When hot, rub the iron over a waxed cloth pad. This method
is not suitable for gas or electric irons, as the use of
abrasives would impair the surface of the iron, which is
WASHING A HEAVY ARTIFICIAL SILK JUMPER
Artificial silk jumpers require care in laundering to prevent
undue stretching. If tacked flat on to a towel before being
washed, and spread on a flat surface to dry, a jumper will not
lose its shape. When dry, it should be pressed with a warm
iron before it is untacked from the towel.
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WASHING A SHETLAND JUMPER
Lightness of touch and gentleness in handling are necessary
Prepare a soapy lather, comfortably warm for the hand, and add
a little powdered borax if the water is hard. Squeeze the
Shetland very gently in this and work it up and down with the
hands, but on no account wring or twist. A second soapy water
may be required, if the jumper is much soiled. When clean,
rinse in water of the same temperature until free from soap.
If white, a very little blue may be added to the last rinsing
DRYING A SHETLAND JUMPER
Squeeze out with the hands, put the jumper between the folds
of a towel, and beat to extract the moisture, or the thicker
wools may be put carefully through a wringer. Then pin out the
jumper to the desired shape on a sheet spread on the floor, or
on an ironing table, using plenty of pins. When dry, shake
out, and air.
TO WHITEN OLD LACE
A sure method of restoring the colour to white crochet or lace
that has become yellow from disuse is to place it in a thick
neutral soap-suds that has been made rather blue. Boil for 1o
or 15 minutes, rinse thoroughly, and hang in the sun to dry.
Treated in this manner, lace articles that have been laid away
will look like new.
Shake it gently and brush with a soft brush to get rid of as
much dust as possible. Then soak it in deep blue water in
which gum arabic has been dissolved, in the proportion of I
teaspoonful to I pint of water. The gum arabic will give a
slight stiffness to the lace, while the blue will improve the
colour. If silk lace is being treated, I teaspoonful of
methylated spirit may be added as well, to give a gloss. After
soaking squeeze the lace gently and shake it out, and spread
smoothly between the folds of a towel. Beat with the hands and
then leave until slightly dry. Iron between two folds of white
kitchen paper, keeping the smooth side of the paper next the
lace. Black lace must never be touched with the bare iron.
WHEN WASHING BED LINEN
Sheets and pillow-cases can be kept a better colour if a
little boiling-water starch is added to the blueing water. The
starch water improves the appearance of both cotton and linen
by giving a smoother and more glossy surface, which does not
soil so readily. Moreover, dirt is more readily removed from
slightly starched fabrics than from unstarched.
TO BLEACH LINEN
A perfectly simple and easy method of bleaching linen is as
follows : Soak the linen overnight in cold or warm water.
Prepare a copper with sufficient water, using 4oz. washing
soda to a gallon of water. Boil the linen in this for two
hours. Rinse and dry out of doors. Repeat the boiling process
for two hours, using fresh soda-water ; rinse thoroughly in
cold water. Wring through the machine. Prepare sufficient
bleaching solution, by mixing 1 part of a good bleach to 1o
parts of cold water. Leave the linen in this for twelve hours,
seeing that all parts are immersed. Rinse in warm water. This
completes the bleaching process, but to ensure that every
trace of the solution has been removed from the fabric, treat
it exactly as though it was soiled -wash, boil, rinse, blue,
and dry out of doors.
It may be necessary if the linen is required absolutely white
to repeat this process once or twice.
Given a bright, windy day, it is quite possible to wash
pillows without first removing the feathers. Prepare plenty of
warm soapy water, adding z tablespoonfuls of turpentine to a
gallon of water. Wash the pillows by kneading and squeezing,
or with a suction washer, until no more dirt comes from them.
Rinse in plenty of warm, soft water, and hang to dry in a
windy spot in the garden. The pillows can be suspended to a
clothes-line or tree by tying one comer of the tick with
string. Shake from time to time whilst drying to prevent the
feathers becoming matted.
TO WASH HEAVY RAG RUGS
A simple way of washing heavy rag rugs is the following: Soak
the rugs for five minutes in cold water, then spread them on a
bare floor and spread lightly with soap jelly. Scrub the rags
until they are clean with a clean broom dipped in hot water.
Rinse thoroughly in dear water in the laundry tub and hang on
the line to dry.
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THE VALUE OF RAIN-WATER
In hard-water districts the collection of a small quantity of
rainwater is well worth while for the washing of woollens and
coloured things. If the tank is provided with a wooden cover,
the water is kept free from dust and smuts. In towns, where
the roofs are dirty, the water should be strained through two
or three thicknesses of muslin before being used for the
laundering of light-coloured garments. Less soap is required
to obtain a a lather with rain-water than with ordinary
tap-water, so where possible housewives are urged to collect
This fabric should be ironed dry and on the wrong side-if
ironed damp like other silk, it will feel hard and have a
mottled appearance. If the colour becomes too light with
washing, it may be restored by rinsing the silk in water
coloured with a little clear tea, or in water in which a
little hay has been boiled.
TO STIFFEN LIGHT TAFFETA SILK
Sponge it on the wrong side with borax and water. Use half a
teaspo ul of borax to half a pint of warm water, and be sure
it is to dissolved. When the silk is nearly dry iron it on the
wrong side with a moderate hot iron. For dark silks use gum
water in the same way.
WASHING. IN ARTIFICIAL SILK
Artificial silk requires special care in laundering. As with
silk and woollen fabrics , hard soap should not be rubbed on,
but should be dissolved in the water before the material is
put in. It is very n o use a pure soap containing no free
alkali, and the washing should be done by a gentle kneading
and squeezing action. After thorough rinsing, pass the garment
through a wringer or roll it up tightly in a Turkish towel.
Owing to the fact that artificial silk fibres are more
fragile when wet, they should not be twisted in wringing.
A NEW USE FOR THE SOAP SHAKER
A soap shaker will be found invaluable when redipping fabrics
with soap dye. Place the cake of soap dye in the soap shaker
and shake it back and forth in the water as when using soap.
In this way the hands are not stained, and an even
distribution of colour is ensured,
SOAP ECONOMY Many people appear to think that the more soap
and soda they use for washing purposes the better the
cleansing action. This is quite a wrong impression, and
careful experimental work shows most clearly that excess of
either quite definitely hinders, rather than helps, cleansing.
A 1 per cent., or even slightly weaker, soap solution gives
quite the best cleansing effect with London tap water. This is
approximately equivalent to 1�
grains to a gallon.
For a soft water half this quantity of soap is sufficient. It
is an economy to add a little soda to soften hard water when
washing cotton or linen fabrics.
WHEN NEEDING STARCH QUICKLY
If starch is required and boiling water is not obtainable,
cold-water starch diluted to about the same extent as hot
water starch will be found perfectly satisfactory for all
purposes for which the latter is usually used. Garments
starched in this way should be made damper than usual before
ironing, and the iron must be very hot.
A few drops of turpentine added to cold-water starch prevent
the iron sticking and give an even gloss to collars and
ECONOMY WHEN MAKING STARCH
After using cold-water starch, allow any remaining to stand in
a basin overnight, when the grains of starch will settle to
the bottom, leaving the water on top. Pour this off and leave
the starch to get thoroughly dry. When all trace of moisture
has evaporated the starch powder may be returned to the tin
for future use.
Rice water makes excellent starch for table linen, blouses,
muslin collars-in fact, anything that requires to be
moderately stiff. Stiff linen collars and cuffs must be
starched with ordinary laundry starch.
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TO LAUNDER A SUNSHADE
Cretonne sunshades or even those of silk, provided the fabric
is not rotten, can be cleaned successfully with soap and
water. Open the sunshade and have ready a basin of warm soapy
water, a piece of hard soap and a soft nail-brush. Moisten the
sunshade, and commencing at the centre and gradually working
down to the edge, use the nail-brush, on which a little hard
soap should be rubbed, to clean specially dirty parts.
SAVING THE BATHROOM TOWELS
So that the bathroom towels should not be cut, when drying
safety and other razor blades, a small towel or cloth should
be hung near to the shaving mirror, for the use of the menfolk
in the house. A small piece of chamois leather, taped and hung
on the small nail, will be much appreciated for polishing the
blades after drying them.
To prevent wooden washing tubs from shrinking and the iron
bands from falling off, they should be filled half full with
water. The water travels up the wood, keeping it moist ; in
very hot weather it is wise to fill them completely. Cover
your tubs to keep them clean, and where there are young
children cover with some heavy object or boards so that an
accident will be impossible. Wooden rubbing boards should be
soaked occasionally to prevent shrinking and cracking.
WASHING BABY'S WOOLLIES
When laundering little garments made of " rabbit " or similar
wool, it is advisable to keep to the following method
First-Shake out all possible dust. Prepare two lots of boiling
water (soft, if possible) and flake soap. Dissolve soap in the
water, making a good " live " suds. When thoroughly dissolved,
cool down to a heat in which you can comfortably put your
hands. Immerse the garment. Squeeze it under water, but on no
account rub it. Fold together without wringing, and pass
through a wringing machine. (Failing this, squeeze out all
water possible, but do not wring with the hands.)
Cool down a second lot of soapy water and repeat the process.
Do not spare water or soap. Rinse in plenty of water of the
same temperature, made just slightly soapy (unless it is soft
water, when this is not required). This keeps the wool soft
without being soapy. Rinse twice. Pass through wringer two or
three times, the last time wrapped in a towel-this partly
dries it. To dry: Spread a cloth on the ground, lay the small
garment on this, and dry in a good current of wind, or indoors
on a flat surface. This is important, and one is well repaid
the extra time entailed pulling and patting into shape. Turn
carefully. Air on a flat surface. Avoid hangers, hooks, and
lines. When quite dry, brush up, using the teazle brush with a
light upward flick.
TO TREAT NEW WELSH FLANNEL
New Welsh flannel may be rendered soft in texture and creamy
in colour by washing in warm soapy water, and then by the
spreading on of the following mixture: Make a soap jelly by
dissolving � lb. of yellow soap grated :finely in one quart
of boiling water. This should be allowed to get quite cold,
and should then be spread in a thin layer over the flannel and
In the morning the material should be washed by the usual
method to remove all trace of the jelly. If the flannel is a
particularly deep green in colour or harsh in texture, the
process may have to be repeated.
WOOLLEN STOCKINGS OR SOCKS
In spite of every care being taken, these have often a
tendency to shrink when washed. A solution of the problem is
to slip them on to wire hose-driers while still wet. These can
be had in various sizes, they keep the hose in shape, and when
dry they will be as comfortable to wear as when new.
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ASBESTOS PAPER AND BOARD
This can be a great help in baking. Food in the oven can be
kept from browning too much by putting one or two sheets of
asbestos paper over it, and there is no danger of it burning
as ordinary paper does. If the bottom of the oven is too hot,
a piece of asbestos paper can be slipped under the baking tin.
Asbestos mats are also useful; they can be slipped under a
saucepan on the top of the stove to reduce heat and prevent
the contents burning.
It sometimes happens that small cakes and tarts are
sufficiently cooked at the bottom before the tops are browned.
If a piece of asbestos board is placed beneath the
baking-sheet whilst the cakes are finishing, there is little
risk of the bottoms becoming burnt. If fireproof pans and
casseroles are placed on asbestos there is little chance of
TO IMPROVE APPLE TART
Try sprinkling two or three tablespoonfuls of orange or lemon
juice over the apples. This gives a delicious flavour and is
an immense improvement to apples that are inclined to be dry
TO MAKE BAKING POWDER
Weigh out z oz. tartaric acid, z oz. carbonate of soda, and 4
Oz. ground rice or rice-flour. Mix these together and pass
them twice through a fine sieve. Store in a paper-lined tin,
or in a glass jar with a stopper. Keep covered and in a dry
MAKING DRIED BREADCRUMBS
Instead of using a rolling-pin or pestle and mortar, pass the
baked bread through the minching-machine ; the result is
Use breakfast biscuits crushed to a fine powder. They will be
found much lighter than ordinary breadcrumbs made from white
bread. Try them when coating fish, making stuffing, apple
charlotte, a cheese souffle, breadcrumb pudding, etc. They are
easily prepared, and when cooking for an invalid are strongly
to be recommended on account of their digestibility.
WHEN BISCUITS ARE SOFT
Spread them out on a tin and place them in a warm oven for a
few minutes. Then cool them off on a wire stand or sieve, and
they will regain their original crispness.
WHEN BUNS ARE STALE
Dip them in a little milk and heat them gradually in the oven.
Butter them while hot and they will be delicious.
A BUTTER ECONOMY
When cutting a large quantity of bread and butter or
sandwiches, pour � pint of
boiling milk over I lb. butter in a basin. Cool slightly and
then work together with a wooden spoon until of a creamy
consistency. This will spread easily on the bread and go
farther than solid butter.
Half a cupful of butter is occasionally given in recipes. The
quickest way to arrive at this is to fill the measuring cup
half full of water, and then to drop in the butter until the
water rises to the top. Drain this off, and half a cupful of
butter will remain. This takes far less time than to pack the
butter down into the cup; it also saves butter, as none will
be left sticking to the sides of the cup. Other fats can be
measured in the same way.
TO PRESERVE BUTTER
First Method.-Put a layer of about
�-inch of salt at the
bottom of a jar or crock, then a layer of several inches of
butter. Press the butter well down with a wooden spoon that
has been previously scalded, packing it as tightly as possible
to prevent any air getting in. Then add another layer of salt,
and more butter, and so on until the jar is three-parts full.
Finish with a deep layer of several inches of salt, and fill
up the jar with cold water that has been previously boiled.
Tie down with greaseproof paper, and
see that the water does not evaporate, or the butter float. If
it does so, put a heavy weight on the top to keep it under the
brine. Second Method.-Have the butter made up in I or
� lb. pats and wrap each
one in apiece of muslin. Pack the pieces in ajar between
layers of salt, and fill up with cold water that has been
boiled. A 7-lb. jar is good for the purpose, as the narrow
neck helps to keep the butter down. Tie down with greaseproof
paper and store in a cool place. The advantage of this method
is that the butter can be easily lifted out as required, and
when the muslin is removed it is ready for use. Butter
preserved by either of these methods will keep good for
months, and will be found delicious.
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A CAKE HINT
When a level cake is required for icing, a slice has often to
be cut off the top. To prevent this waste, make a hole in the
middle of the raw cake mixture before putting it in the oven,
raising it up round the sides of the tin. Place the cake in a
good oven, and as the middle rises first, the cake will have a
nice flat surface by the time it is cooked.
WHEN NOT TO GREASE TINS
It is not generally realised that it is quite unnecessary to
grease the tins in which pastry is cooked, as the pastry
itself contains sufficient fat to prevent its sticking.
WHEN COOKING CAKES
The colour of plain fruit cakes can be improved by the
addition of a small quantity of cocoa essence. About half a
tablespoonful to I lb. of flour answers this purpose, but is
insufficient to impart a chocolate flavour to the cake.
HOW TO AVOID BURNT CAKES
When baking a large cake in a small oven, it is a good plan to
pin a band of thick paper round the outside of the tin about 2
inches deeper than the tin itself.
As paper is a bad conductor of heat, this helps to prevent the
cake from burning at the sides.
Imparts the flavour of celery, and is therefore of great use
as a flavouring when the fresh vegetable is unobtainable. For
about 3 quarts of soup, tie a small teaspoonful of the seeds
up in a scrap of clean muslin, removing the little bag before
serving the dish. Never use them loose, as they are too small
to strain out, and resemble black specks in the food.
TO MAKE GOOD COFFEE
Fill a kettle with fresh, cold water, and put it on to boil.
Use an earthenware or china coffee-pot, and heat it
thoroughly. Over the top of the pot place a square of butter
muslin, letting it sag in the middle. For three cups of
coffee, put into the muslin three level dessertspoonfuls of
coffee. When the water is boiling fiercely in the kettle, pour
it through the coffee slowly until three or four cupfuls have
gone through. Cover the pot and take to table at once. Wash
the cloth immediately after use and keep it in a jar of cold
water, never permitting it to get dry. It must be kept
perfectly sweet. If these directions are followed explicitly,
excellent coffee will be the result.
To prevent cheese going mouldy moisten a piece of muslin with
vinegar, wrap it round the cheese, and store in a dry place.
By cutting in long strips and putting it in a screw-top glass
jar cheese will keep fresh for a considerable time, and may be
kept in the refrigerator without imparting its flavour to
TO USE UP CHEESE
Small scraps of cheese need not be wasted. They should be
grated or finely chopped, and if put in a bottle and tightly
corked will keep good for some time. This grated cheese can be
used in many ways-for sprinkling into soup, for making " au
gratin " dishes, sandwiches, savouries, and omelettes. The
remains of soft cream cheese can also be utilised for making
sandwiches or savouries, if there is added to them some extra
cream and more seasoning or flavouring, such as anchovy or
shrimp paste, chopped pickles or nuts, small pieces of
cucumber, or beetroot, etc. This mixture does very well for
filling hard-boiled eggs, or for piling on little biscuits as
TO PREVENT CUSTARDS CURDLING
When cooking baked custards, considerable difficulty is often
experienced in reducing the heat of the oven sufficiently to
prevent curdling. Custards should always be cooked in a cool
oven, and as a further precaution, they should be stood in a
piedish in a baking-tin containing at least one inch of water.
When cooking boiled custards, if a double saucepan is not
used, the custard should be cooked in a stone jam jar or jug
standing in a saucepan of boiling water. It should be stirred
until the mixture thickens.
Strain new, warm milk into a shallow pan 8 or 9 inches deep.
Leave in a cool place until the cream has risen-12 hours in
summer and 24 in winter. Then remove the pan to a stove and
heat the milk slowly by steam or on the side of the range. The
heating must be done very gradually, not less than
� hour being allowed, and
the temperature must not exceed 176� Fahr. When the process of
scalding is completed, transfer the pan of milk to a cool
place, or stand it in cold water. Natural cooling is best, as
the cooked flavour that is wanted in Devonshire cream is then
better retained. When quite cold, skim off the cream into tins
or pots. One gallon of fairly rich milk should produce I lb.
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BOILING CRACKED EGGS
Cracked eggs can be boiled without the loss of any of the egg
if the following method is adopted: Add a tablespoonful of
salt to the water in which the egg is boiled, rub the crack
well with common salt, and put the egg at once into the
fast-boiling salt water. The white of the egg will not ooze
out nor the crack become larger.
TO PRESERVE EGGS
If there is storage accommodation, it is a good plan to buy
eggs when they are cheapest, and preserve them for use during
the winter when they are very much more expensive. The eggs
must be fresh and clean. Put them into a large jar or other
receptacle, and cover them entirely with water-glass solution.
A gallon jar will hold from 3 to 4 dozen eggs, and from 3 to 4
pints of the liquid. Water-glass can be bought at almost any
of the large stores, and should be diluted according to
directions given, boiled, and then cooled before being used.
Cover the jar closely to avoid evaporation, and store in a
cool place. The water-glass coats the eggs and makes them less
porous, thus preventing bacteria and air entering the shell.
TO STORE EGGS
To prevent unnecessary breakage and to keep eggs as fresh as
possible, they should always be stored with the small end
downwards. Take a board 1 inch thick, of any size to meet your
requirements, and bore in it rows of holes about 1�
inches in diameter. A board about 1 foot wide and 2�
feet long will take about 5 dozen eggs. If liked, a wooden
ledge can be nailed round
the edge. Place the eggs in the holes as quickly as possible
after the time they are laid.
TO KEEP EGGS
When yolks of eggs are left over, just cover with cold water
and they will keep quite fresh until the following day without
a skin forming.
WHEN PREPARING FISH FOR BOILING
When boiling fish in one piece, place the piece of fish on a
plate before tying the cloth around it-thereby saving
much trouble in
removing the fish fish from the kettle, also preventing
waste and unsightly food caused by the fish adhering to the
cloth and breaking into small pieces.
WHEN FRYING HERRINGS
Dry them and leave them between the folds of a cloth for
several hours, or overnight. Dip them in seasoned oatmeal. Fry
in a very small quantity of fat, and they will not splutter
WHEN BAKING FISH
Line the baking-tin or dish with a piece of strong, white
paper, greased with a little oil or butter. Lay the fish with
any accessories on the top of this, and you will find that it
is easily removed when cooked. Also, when the paper is slipped
out the tin or dish is left comparatively clean and can be
washed without the usual scraping.
REMOVING THE SMELL OF FISH
The smell of fish is particularly obstinate to .remove from
cooking utensils. These should be washed as soon as possible
after use in lukewarm water to which two tablespoonfuls of
salt have been added. If they are then rinsed well in clean
water and dried no smell should remain.
FRESH LEMON PEEL
Knives and forks that have been used for fish should be rubbed
with the rind of a fresh lemon after washing. It will be found
that no flavour or smell of fish will then remain.
WHAT TO DO WITH SCRAPS OF FAT
Cut them into small pieces, removing all discoloured parts.
Put them into a strong saucepan with cold water to cover, and
boil until all the water has evaporated, being careful to
remove all scum as it rises. Now draw the pan to the side of
the fire and stir the contents frequently. Cook more slowly
until the membranous part of the fat becomes brown and
shrivelled and the liquid that has oozed out is a clear oil.
Cool slightly strain through muslin or a fine strainer. When
cold the liquid will be in a hard white cake, and will be
found excellent or frying and other purposes.
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PLUCKING THE FOWL
The best time to pluck poultry is when the bird is newly
killed and before the flesh has time to stiffen. Place it on a
large sheet of paper and commence with the wings, leaving the
breast to the last, as it is the most tender. Pluck out the
feathers from the tail upwards, giving them a sharp,
backward pull. A small knife may be used to pull the stronger
feathers from the wings. Although it is best to pluck poultry
dry, sometimes it is a help to dip the bird, or parts of the
bird, in hot water for a minute ; but this must be done with
caution or the skin will be softened too much.
When every trace of feather has been removed, singe any off
any hairs or down with a lighted taper, or over a gas jet.
Grilling on a gas cooker often causes an unpleasant smell.
This is due to the burning of the fat which has splashed on to
the grid during the everyday use of the stove. A good plan is
to remove the grid, wash it in strong soda-water, and replace
it only when grilling.
GINGER ALE JELLY
When making a packet jelly, try using ginger ale instead of
Dissolve the jelly in all quantity of water then make up the
quantity of liquid with ginger ale. When served with whipped
cream, the jelly has just a little pleasing sting in it, but
not enough far anyone to guess how if has been made.
A NOVEL GARNISH
An attractive garnish for cold meats or salads may be made by
rolling tightly. several large lettuce leaves and keeping them
in a cool place until needed.
When ready to serve, cut the roll into�-inch pieces, and
pretty, light green rosettes will be the result.
These add greatly to the appearance of the dish.
HOW TO MAKE A HAY BOX
This can very easily be made at home. It is useful for all
slow cooking and saves fuel. It will also keep food or water
hot. Select a wooden, box considerably larger than the
saucepan you intend to use, and have a lid to fit it. Line the
bottom and sides with a thick padding of newspaper, and fix
this in position with small tacks. Then fill the box with
perfectly clean and dry hay, and press the saucepan into it,
so that it forms a nest for itself. An earthenware marmite, or
a saucepan with small side handles, or a top handle, is the
most convenient kind to use. There should be at least 3 inches
of hay all round the saucepan and more at the bottom. Make a
thick cushion to cover the top of the box, under the lid,
stuffing it with hay. When the box is in use, the lid should
either be fastened down or a weight should be put on the top
of it, to keep it firmly in position. The hay should be
removed when it becomes soiled. A larger hay-box to hold two
saucepans can be made in the same way, but there must be a
good division of hay between then or, preferably, a wooden
partition in the box. Two separate cushions will also be
HINTS ON USING THE HAY-BOX
I. It is only suitable for slow cooking-the cooking of
cereals, soup, stewed meat, stewed fruit, etc.
2. The cooking must be started on the fire, and the saucepan
put boiling hot into the hay-box.
3. If the preliminary cooking has been done over a fire, care
must be taken that there is no live cinder sticking to the
bottom of the casserole.
4. More time must be allowed than for ordinary cooking.
5. If porridge is left in all night, it will only require
re-heating in the morning.
6. Boiling water put in at night will be hot enough for
washing with in the morning.
7. Keep well covered, and do not remove the lid to see how the
food is cooking.
8. Put in a meat stew and leave it several hours; it will be
ready when you require it.
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TO DRY HERBS
Pick them in the early morning, and select those that are full
grown, but before they have reached the flowering stage. Cut
off the roots and wash them thoroughly to get rid of any trace
of dust. Then shake out and spread on a sheet of
blotting-paper spread on a baking sheet or tray. Dry in the
sun, protecting them from dust with a piece of muslin, on the
rack above the fire, or in a slow oven with the door open. The
temperature of the oven must not be over 120� Fahr. When there
is no trace of moisture left in the herbs rub them to powder
with the fingers and pass them through a sieve. Keep in a
wide-mouthed bottle with a good cork, or in a tin box-paper or
cardboard is useless.
TO COOL JELLIES, ETC.
It is often necessary to cool jellies, blancmanges, etc.,
quickly, and when ice is not available the mould or basin may
be stood in water containing equal parts of common salt and
washing soda in solution. Sufficient should be added so that
just a little is left undissolved. Other chemicals which make
a good freezing mixture are ammonium nitrate and washing soda,
in equal parts.
WHEN UNMOULDING A JELLY
Even although the greatest care is taken, it is sometimes
difficult to turn out a mould in the centre of a serving dish.
Try the following plan: pour cold water over the dish on which
the jelly has to be served, shake off as much water as
possible, then, if the mould fails to fall in its proper
place, it is an easy matter to slide it into position.
A JAM MAKING HINT
Difficulty is sometimes experienced in getting jams of all
kinds to set. This is generally due to one of two reasons ;
either by using over-ripe fruit (the choice of slightly
under-ripe fruit for jam is therefore advised) or by the fact
that the fruit is not cooked sufficiently before the addition
of the sugar.
Instead of tying covers on the jars, dip a round of strong
greaseproof or parchment paper into milk, and while the jam is
still hot stretch over the top and work round the sides of the
pot. When cold, the cover will adhere firmly.
WHEN MAYONNAISE CURDLES
Put another yolk of egg into an empty basin, and add the
curdled sauce gradually to it, in the same way that oil is
added in the first instance, stirring all the time.
A TIP ABOUT MAYONNAISE
It is not generally known that the whites of the eggs can
quite well be used up in the making of this sauce. When the
sauce is quite finished, whip up one or two whites of eggs to
a very stiff froth and mix them in very lightly. They will
make the mayonnaise of a nice creamy consistency, and there is
no danger of them separating.
TO MAKE TOUGH MEAT TENDER
Mix a little oil and vinegar together in the proportion of one
part vinegar to two parts oil. Put the meat on a dish, pour
the oil and vinegar over, and stand for several hours, basting
WHEN BUYING MEAT
When choosing meat its colour is an important factor. Good
beef, freshly cut, is a rich deep red. Veal ranges from almost
white to a dull pinkish hue, and lamb should be a delicate
red. Pork is best when a pale brownish pink, or even nearly
white, in young pigs; whilst mutton is a dull brick-red if
freshly killed; if well hung-a great point in its favour-the
cut surfaces are darker in colour. Veal and lamb, being young
meat, have less flavour and nutriment, and are more difficult
to digest than meat from mature animals. Also, they sour very
rapidly. All meat, but beef especially, is nicest when well
marbled with creamy-white fat, and all should have a firm,
smooth, fine grain, or fibre. Both these signs are indications
that the meat is likely to be tender-a matter of utmost
importance. So also are the colour and texture of the bones.
If these are reddish in colour, and comparatively soft and
pliable, the joint is from a young animal. The opposite is the
case if they are white, hard, and dense.
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WHEN BOILING MILK
Milk boils over more quickly than any other food. It is
therefore a good plan to have some simple means at hand
whereby the temperature can be lowered quickly without
attempting to lift the pan. If a large metal tablespoon is
kept handy, but in a cool place, this can be plunged into the
milk immediately it starts rising to the top of the pan. The
cold metal robs the boiling
milk of some of its heat, causing it to subside. You can then
remove the saucepan to a cooler place without any risk of
spilling the milk
WHEN MIXING MUSTARD
Use a little milk and add a pinch of salt. The mustard will
keep a better colour and not dry up so quickly as when made
WHEN FRYING ONIONS
To make fried onions more tender, slice them very thinly, put
them into a frying-pan with a little fat, and just cover them
with cold water. Boil quickly until the water has evaporated
and then fry until brown.
REMOVING THE ODOUR OF ONION
The odour of onion and fish can be removed from a frying-pan
by scalding a little vinegar in it ; afterwards wash in the
usual way. This is specially essential when omelettes are made
in the frying-pan used for other purposes. So delicate is the
flavour of an omelet that if possible a special pan should be
kept for omelette making.
PEELING A QUANTITY OF ONIONS
To minimise discomfort when peeling onions, place them in a
pan and pour boiling water over them. If they are peeled at
once they will not cause your eyes to smart or water.
When making a fruit compote or salad, try soaking the oranges
first in boiling water to cover, letting them stand five
minutes. You will find that the white pithy part will come off
quite easily with the skin, and the orange is left clean for
AN OMELETTE HINT
To prevent an omelette sticking to the pan, two precautions
must be taken
I. The pan should be seasoned, that is, it should be heated
well with a tablespoonful of salt in it and then scoured,
using soft paper.
2. The butter in which the omelette is to be cooked should be
clarified. This is done by melting the butter in the pan and
skimming off the curd before frying the omelette.
GLAZING PASTRY WITHOUT EGGS
To one tablespoonful of brown sugar add two tablespoonfuls of
milk. Boil them together until the sugar is dissolved and then
cool. Brush over the pastry with this before putting it in the
oven, and it will produce a beautiful brown crust.
A TIP ABOUT BAKED POTATOES
Allow the potatoes to lie in hot water for fifteen minutes
before baking. This not only improves the flavour, but reduces
the time required for baking by one-half. If crisp and brown
potatoes are wanted, brush them over with melted butter or
dripping before putting them in the oven.
T KEEP POTATOES FLOURY
To enjoy the full flouriness of well-cooked potatoes, drain
off all the water in which they have been boiled and gently
shake the pan over a low heat for a few moments. Cover for a
few moments with a folded cloth, which will absorb all
superfluous moisture and leave the potatoes perfectly dry and
TO WHITEN POTATOES
Old potatoes, even when most carefully boiled, sometimes look
discoloured and rather unappetising. If a squeeze of lemon is
added to the water in which they are boiled, they will retain
their whiteness and are considerably improved.
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TO PREVENT PUDDINGS STICKING
Puddings that are boiled in cloths are very liable to stick to
the bottom of the saucepan. This can be prevented if one or
two lids from golden syrup tins or a round pastry cutter is
placed on the bottom of the pan.
WHEN CHOOSING SALMON
The middle cut is the most expensive, the head and shoulders
being the least costly. The latter part contains far more
flesh than many imagine, and is well worth buying. Against the
cost per lb. of this fish must be taken into account its high
food-value, also that its firm consistency makes a small
helping of it quite sufficient.
WHEN CARVING SALMON
Silver or plated fish-servers should be used. Care must be
taken to serve as little bone as possible, and not to break
the flakes more than is necessary. The fish should be placed
on the table with the thick part farthest from the carver,
then cut across in fairly thick slices right through to the
bone. When the top side is finished, the bone should be gently
raised and the underside carved in the same way.
WHEN MAKING SANDWICHES
When using delicately flavoured foods for sandwiches, it is a
good plan to beat up the butter to be used with chopped
parsley or cress. This gives an added piquancy of flavour that
is much appreciated.
A WARM WEATHER SANDWICH HINT
In warm weather it is a good plan to wrap picnic sandwiches
either in a damp cloth or in damp, greaseproof paper. By this
means they may be kept moist all day or overnight when
picnickers wish to set out early in the morning.
Can be utilised as follows : Make a batter as you would for
pancakes and let it stand for half an hour. Dip each sandwich
into the batter, turning it over in order to soak it well,
then fry to a golden brown in a small quantity of fat. No
matter how dry the sandwiches may have been, they will now
make a delicious supper dish.
HOW TO CLEAR SOUP STOCK
White of egg slightly beaten, or raw beef finely chopped, may
be used. Remove all fat from the stock and put it into a
saucepan, allowing the white and shell of one egg, or � lb.
lean beef, to each quart. Place on the stove and beat with a
fine whisk until it reaches boiling-point; then remove whisk
and let stock boil up once. Then place it at the side of the
stove and keep it warm, without boiling, for ten minutes.
Strain through a jelly-cloth and re-heat as required.
WHEN WEIGHING SYRUP OR TREACLE
If the scale pan be well floured before use, syrup may be
weighed without soiling the pan.
Dip the spoon or cup into boiling water before using it, and
the syrup or treacle will run out of it quickly.
TO PREVENT A SWISS ROLL FROM CRACKING Remove from the oven
and turn the contents of the baking-tin on to a clean, damp
cloth. Trim the edges, spread with jam and roll up quickly in
the usual way. The moisture on the cloth is sufficient to
prevent the roll from cracking, provided it is not overcooked.
TO MAKE COLOURED SUGAR
Put some castor or granulated sugar on a plate or sheet of
stiff paper and sprinkle a few drops of liquid colouring on
the top. Mix this in with a palette knife until an even tint
is obtained. Leave to dry, and then keep in a covered jar or
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DEGREES OF SUGAR BOILING
When making sweets and confectionery it is often necessary to
know the different stages of sugar boiling. When sugar and
water are boiled the temperature gradually increases until the
character of the sugar is changed and it becomes caramel.
Overheating causes caramel to burn and char.
THREAD DEGREE-228-235� F. If a little syrup at this
temperature is pulled between the thumb and finger it forms a
BLOW-240� F. The syrup is thick and bubbles rapidly.
FEATHER-245� F. If at this temperature a little of the syrup
is removed with the handle end of a skewer and blown, fine
feathery particles are formed.
BALL-250� F. If a little of the syrup is dropped into cold
water and worked with the fingers, it makes a soft ball.
CRACK-If the syrup is heated until a temperature Of 310� F. is
registered, and a little dropped into cold water, it becomes
hard and brittle.
CARAMEL-330-360� F. The sugar changes to caramel, the colour
of which changes from golden yellow to dark brown as the
A very delightful flavour can be given to tea by putting the
thinly peeled rind of an orange into the tea caddy. Cover with
the tea and close down for an hour at least. Stir the tea
about before use.
TIME-SAVING COOKERY HINTS
Always remove the skin and bone from fish while it is still
warm; they come away easily then.
If boiling water be poured over raisins that are to be stoned,
the fruit will plump out and the stones may be easily removed.
When brown stock is needed for some dish and none is handy,
dissolve a little meat extract in water and use this instead.
Potatoes mash smoothly and quickly if hot milk is used instead
WHEN USING A THERMOMETER
The following scale of temperatures will be found useful.
180� to 190�
Bread and Pastry
400� to 450�
300� to 320�
290� to 300�
360� to 380�
360� to 380�
360� to 375�
PEELING TOMATOES. AND APRICOTS
Tomatoes, apricots, etc., for summer salads may be quickly and
easily peeled if they are dipped for one minute in boiling
water before the skin is removed.
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CARVING THE TURKEY
The first essential is a good sharp knife. Place the bird with
the tail at your left-hand side and let it remain in that
position through out. Begin with the removal of the leg on the
near side. Insert the fork into the top portion of the leg and
draw it gently towards you, at the same time cutting the skin
which joins the leg to the carcase. Feel with the point of the
knife for the joint and sever
the leg from the body. Cut the meat from the leg in slices,
but do not serve the bone. Then carve the same side of the
breast in long thin slices, and include a portion of leg,
breast, and stuffing in each helping. To carve the other leg,
turn the bird on to its cut side, and gently draw the leg
upwards with the fork, whilst feeling for the joint with the
point of the knife. The breast can then be cut in slices in
the same way. If the wing-bones and oyster-cut are not
required, they should be left intact, as they taste sweeter
cold than hot.
ROASTING THE TURKEY
Sometimes it is discovered at the last moment that the bird is
too big for the oven. When this is the case, it is quite a
good plan to remove the legs very neatly with a sharp knife
and to roast them separately. The cut part of the turkey
should be protected with greased paper when cooking. Before
taking the turkey to table the legs may be refixed in position
by small wooden skewers.
A NEW USE FOR TWEEZERS
Keep a pair at hand in the kitchen; they are useful for
drawing out the small pin-feathers in chickens. A pair of
tweezers with broad ends are better for the purpose than the
Plunge green vegetables into boiling water containing salt,
and add vinegar or lemon juice to the water in which white
vegetables are cooked to preserve the colour. With the
exception of spinach, cook all green vegetables with the lid
off the saucepan.
A CABBAGE HINT
A lump of sugar put into the water in which green cabbages and
peas are cooked improves their flavour. This applies equally
to dried as well as to fresh peas. Serve vegetables as soon as
the cooking is completed. Many of them spoil if kept standing.
DRIED VEGETABLES If dried peas and beans are soaked
overnight in water containing a small quantity of sodium
bicarbonate--� teaspoonful to a quart of water-the length of
time required for cooking is considerably reduced. Also, if a
very little sodium bicarbonate is added to the cooking water,
the colour is improved and the time of cooking again reduced.
To further retain the goodness of dried vegetables they can be
steamed instead of boiled. Soak overnight in water with a
small quantity of sodium bicarbonate, as above. Their colour
is improved if a very small quantity of ammonium carbonate-not
more than a piece the size of a small pea to a quart of
water-is put into the boiling water at the same time that the
peas are placed in the strainer. The lid should be put on
immediately. If the ammonium carbonate is placed in the water
before the vegetables are ready, no benefit will be obtained,
as ammonia, being volatile, soon loses its strength.
STORING ROOT VEGETABLES
Potatoes.-When only a small quantity has to be stored, put
down a layer of straw in a dry place under cover. Spread out
the potatoes on this and cover them entirely with a good layer
of straw. In the event of severe frost increase the quantity
of straw. Carrots and Beetroots.-Put a layer of straw in the
corner of a dry shed, and cover this layer with sand or dry
soil. Arrange the roots on this in a single layer, and cover
with more sand or soil. Arrange the roots on this soil. Repeat
the layers until all the roots are covered. Then spread a
layer of straw over the top to protect the roots from frost.
Parsnips and Artichokes.-These should be left in the ground as
long as possible, then store in the same way as carrots.
Turnips.-Spread out on a dry floor or on a bed of straw in a
A LIGHT YORKSHIRE PUDDING
Mix the necessary flour, eggs, salt, and a small quantity of
milk to a very thick, smooth paste, and then add the remainder
of the milk made very hot in a saucepan. Bake the puddings, if
possible, in fairly small round tins, and you will find they
will puff up to the top of the tins and be delightfully crisp
and light. By mixing in this manner less eggs are required.
SOME HOMELY WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
Should the small weights of your kitchen scales be lost or
mislaid , the following homely weights will come in very handy
�d. measures I inch in diameter. 1d. measures one-tenth of a
foot. Half-a-crown weighs � an ounce. 3d. weighs 1 ounce.
13 pennies weigh � pound.
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