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Lisburn, Co. Antrim, Northern Ireland




For regular cleaning, hot water and a neutral soap are advised. Very fine steel wool, which can be bought in packets, or some simple cleansing powder free from soda, is useful for removing any discoloration. A weak solution of vinegar boiled in the saucepan will also remove tarnish.

Use a good-sized enamelling brush for cleaning and note how quickly and effectively it cleans out crevices and corners. Even a large-sized mattress may be turned without undue exertion if strong handles, made of leather, or strips of bed-ticking, are sewn on about half a foot from the end of each corner. This plan saves strain and broken finger-nails.

When a water-bottle becomes discoloured put into it one tablespoonful of coarse salt and two tablespoonfuls of vinegar. Shake well for a few minutes, then fill up with warm water and stand for an hour or two. Pour out the contents and rinse with clean water. This treatment will, as a rule, leave the glass quite clean and bright, but it may be necessary to repeat the process.

Cruet bottles used for vinegar sometimes become brown in appearance. To remove this stain, caused by the acid of vinegar, fill the bottles with a strong solution of washing soda and allow to stand for about half an hour. Rinse thoroughly in warm water and dry.

After shallow black bowls have been in use a short time, particularly in hard-water districts, a white chalky deposit appears on their inner surface. This may be removed by moistening a cloth with lemon juice and rubbing it briskly over the marks, then rinse and dry the bowl. Its appearance may be still further improved by polishing with any furniture cream or wax polish.

First clean the metal in the ordinary way, using brass polish, then coat very lightly with some good floor polish and rub up with a soft duster. The lustre lasts considerably longer.
Rottenstone is very useful for cleaning badly neglected brass. Boil the article in a strong solution of washing soda, rinse thoroughly, then wash in warm soapy water, using a small scrubbing brush for ornamental parts. When dry, polish with rottenstone and oil. Finally polish with a little dry rottenstone and a soft duster.

The so-called brass rod in reality is iron cased with brass, and the latter quickly tarnishes from atmospheric moisture. To save constant cleaning, thoroughly well polish the rods, taking care that every trace of metal polish is removed, then apply a thin coat of clear shellac or wax polish. The application of a little oil, with a small brush or pipe cleaner, to the moving parts of a patent runner ensures silent and easy movement.

Should be rubbed frequently with a soft duster or chamois leather and, when necessary, washed with a good soap and water. Neither soda nor brass polish should be employed; the lacquer is only a kind of varnish, and is easily removed with any strong treatment.

Scrubbing should usually be sufficient to keep an unglazed brick fireplace in good condition, but occasionally more drastic treatment is necessary. The use of spirits of salts, or hydrochloric acid, diluted with water, using approximately 1/4 acid to 3/4 water, removes any traces of plaster and brightens the bricks. If hydrochloric acid is not available, undiluted vinegar may be used instead. As hydrochloric acid is corrosive it should be used with care and stored in a safe place. Naturally the bricks should be well rinsed after its use.

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When cleaning these, avoid the use of water. Dust with a soft duster, using a brush, if necessary, for the ornamental parts. If the bronze requires further cleaning, apply a sparing application of olive oil, rubbing it well. Afterwards remove all trace of oil with a soft duster.

When new, brushes and brooms should be soaked for some hours in cold water, then thoroughly dried before being used. This prevents the bristles coming out so easily. Brushes must be kept clean, and, when necessary, washed in a pail of hot, soapy water, rinsed in cold water, and set up to dry. Never let brushes stand on their bristles, but hang them by wire loops. The wire, unlike string, never twists and does not wear through.
Combing the household brooms and the brushes in the carpet sweeper and cleaner is the only way of effectively removing hairs and fluff. A horse curry-comb is about the best sort to use, as it is coarse and strong

Rub the wood thoroughly with Vaseline. This will prevent the washing water from spoiling the ebony. The Vaseline may be rubbed off afterwards with a dry duster and the wood will be beautifully polished. Do not use too much Vaseline.

Prepare warm soapy water such as is used for woollens. For toilet brushes, the addition of a tablespoonful of borax to two quarts of water softens it and helps in the removal of grease. Household brushes, such as those used for boots, black-leading stoves, etc., are generally very greasy, so that the use of a small amount of washing soda is generally necessary to facilitate cleansing. Wash by dipping the bristles up and down in the soapy lather, afterwards rinsing thoroughly in warm water to remove the soap. Then rinse in cold water to harden the bristles, shake and hang out of doors to dry. Brushes with flat backs, such as hair brushes, should be stood on their backs to dry, after as much moisture as possible has been shaken from them.

Use a wire comb or stiff dandy brush on wax-polishing brushes regularly to remove cotton or dust. Once a week or once a fortnight is generally sufficient, according to how often the polisher is used.

When sweeping either with a stiff broom or short-handled brush always move the brush in the direction of the pile. To prevent dust rising sprinkle tea leaves, from which all the tea has been squeezed, over the carpet.
An easy way of removing grease spots from carpets is to moisten a small piece of cloth with turpentine and rub over the stains very hard until the spot disappears. Then rub vigorously with a clean, dry duster until all trace of the turpentine is removed or dust will stick to the carpet.

First scrape off solid grease with a blunt knife. Place a piece of blotting-paper over the spot and press with a hot iron, moving the blotting-paper into different positions so that the grease is more readily absorbed. If any trace of grease remains after this treatment, it may be removed with petrol. This liquid, being highly inflammable, should not be used in a room with an open fire or light.

Soot marks are frequently found on carpets near the fireplace. These can be removed by rubbing the place with a rag dipped in carbon tetrachloride (a few ounces can be purchased from any chemist, and will last a considerable time). The mark should be rubbed vigorously, using a circular motion, and as soon as the rag becomes soiled a clean one should be taken. Care should be taken not to inhale this chemical, as it has slight anaesthetic properties,
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Of all floor coverings cork carpet is one of the most difficult to keep in good condition. Its rough surface allows dirt and grease to penetrate, which is not easily removed. When necessary, wash it with warm water containing borax, about a tablespoonful to a gallon of water. Afterwards rinse thoroughly to remove all trace of borax, or the carpet may be patchy in appearance. Neglected cork carpet, which is badly spotted and the appearance of which cannot be improved by washing, may be treated with a liberal amount of wax polish. Several applications will probably be necessary before a fairly smooth surface is obtained.

A chamois leather of medium size makes an excellent final polisher for antique as well as highly polished furniture. The cleaning of the glass of mirrors and pictures should be done with a chamois leather wrung out of warm water. The advantage of using a leather for this purpose is that no fluff remains on the glass. If table silver is regularly washed in warm soapy water, dried with a teacloth, and polished with a chamois leather, it does not require a weekly clean.

Remove the dust from padded cushions with a furniture brush or vacuum cleaner. Wash the wicker-work with warm soapy water to which a little borax has been added. Rinse with plenty of cold water containing one tablespoonful of salt to one gallon of water. Dry out of doors for preference; if this is impossible, before an open window. If the wicker is discoloured, brush over with lemon juice after rinsing.

Metal coffee-pots, if not of aluminium, should always be bright on the inside to ensure good coffee. An occasional boiling of soapy water in which a little washing soda is dissolved removes the discoloration. Thorough rinsing afterwards is essential.

New cretonne covers which are not sufficiently soiled to require laundering may be freshened by rubbing over with a petrol brush or with a pad of white cotton dipped in petrol. This treatment is specially suitable for the arms and head-rest, which usually become greasy. On account of the inflammable nature of petrol the work should be done out of doors.

The possessor of a broom-handle type of electric vacuum cleaner need only remove the dust-bag, and in its place tie on the clean cushion-case. The lumpy kapok is then put on a clean linoleum floor and the machine run over it. In a few minutes the kapok, beautifully milled, fills the cushion case. Without a machine it must be fluffed by hand.

These may be kept beautifully white if they are scoured occasionally with the following mixture: 6 tablespoonfuls chloride of lime, 1/2 lb. soft soap, and 1/2 lb. silver sand. Mix these ingredients together and apply with a scrubbing brush. Rinse thoroughly to remove all trace of sand and soap.

Dishes can be washed or rinsed quickly and effectively if a 2 1/4 foot piece of garden rubber hose with a spray nozzle is used by screwing it on to the hot, or cold, tap at the sink. The force of the spray is far greater than the ordinary flow, and the water can easily be directed to specially flush any particular corners or crevices.

To remove the brown stain found on egg-spoons, rub with a moistened cloth dipped in salt after the spoons have been washed.

An easy method of removing the line of soap curd that always appears after using a porcelain enamelled bath, is to sprinkle a little dry soap powder (not a scouring powder or any substance of a gritty nature) on to a piece of old Turkish towelling and rub gently, when the marks quickly disappear.
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Porcelain enamel needs very careful treatment if it is not to be damaged in cleaning. A paste made of powdered whiting, French chalk and water, or plain turpentine or turpentine substitute, will not in any way impair the surface and will bring grease marks and stains away without exertion.

First wash, to remove all trace of grease. Then moisten a small piece of muslin with a solution of salts of lemon, apply this to the stain and rub it gently. It may be necessary to repeat the process once or twice. When all discoloration has been removed, rinse with plenty of clean water. This same method may be used for cleaning porcelain enamelled baths, but great care must be exercised, as acids used carelessly may damage the surface of the enamel.

The blowing attachment of a vacuum cleaner can be used to advantage for removing dust and crumbs from the filaments of toasters, cookers, etc., without damaging them in the slightest degree. A flat paint-brush which can be purchased for a few pence will be found most handy for this purpose; it will remove all trace of crumbs very easily.

Floors made from sawdust and a mineral substance which petrifies after being laid a few days, require a plentiful supply of linseed oil when new, until a thoroughly good surface is obtained. The oil should be well worked in, and the surplus allowed to remain on the floor overnight. If coarse sawdust was used in making the floor, it may be necessary to rub down the floor with steel-wire balls. When a smooth surface has been obtained, patent floors only require polishing with one of the well-known and efficient floor polishes.
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Shake the fur first and brush out all dust, using a clean brush. Then lay the fur on a large towel or small sheet and sprinkle it with a handful of powdered magnesia. Rub this in with the hand, paying particular attention to the parts that are most soiled. Fold double with the fur inside, wrap up in the towel or sheet and lay aside for three or four days. Then shake the fur out of doors and beat on the wrong side with a light cane until free from powder.

Towards the end of the winter, fur coats and collars become soiled. They can be cleaned by warming plenty of bran in the oven. Rub this well into the fur, using a clean cloth or brush for the purpose. Those who have a vacuum cleaner provided with a suitable attachment, either hand-power or electric, should use it to remove the bran.

Put into a jar or wide-mouthed bottle, that has a screw top or tight-fitting cork, I teaspoonful of hot water, 1/2 teaspoonful of ammonia, I teaspoonful of soap powder, and I teaspoonful of powdered whiting. Mix together, put in the chain, and cover tightly. Shake well, and leave for a few minutes. Rinse in clear warm water, pat between the folds of a soft towel to dry, and then rub very carefully with a chamois leather.

If this is old and has become very soiled and greasy, an unpleasant smell occurs every time the gas rings are lighted. By removing all the burners and scrubbing them in hot soda-water they can be thoroughly cleaned, but if time is of consequence, remove the grid and place it over a hot fire for a few minutes, when all the grease will be burnt off. This should only be done occasionally.

The appearance of soiled and discoloured linoleum can be much improved by cleaning with turpentine. Turpentine removes the polish with which the dirt is incorporated. To prevent linoleum from becoming soiled in this way, clean polishing rags should invariably be used, particularly for light-coloured linoleums.

If possible, soak the ink up immediately with blotting-paper. Scrub the stained part with a little warm water. If any ink still remains, pour over a little oxalic acid. Rinse with water containing a little washing-soda. Then wax polish to improve the surface after using the soda.

Try the following: Wash the marble in the usual way, using a little scouring powder if necessary, and dry thoroughly. Then put a very little white furniture cream on a clean cloth and rub over the surface of the marble. This will give it a fine polish, which will be most pleasing to the eye.

If badly stained, the judicious use of lemon juice will remove stains and discolorations from marble. It must be remembered, however, that lemon juice, being an acid, will impair the surface if allowed to remain in contact with it for very long or if applied too frequently. It should only be used, therefore, after rubbing the stained part with a paste made of soap and whiting has proved ineffectual. Friction soap cleansers should not be used for polished marble as they roughen the surface, and in consequence the marble soils more readily. After the use of lemon juice, all trace should be removed by thorough rinsing with warm water and drying. When dry, the rubbing in of a very little salad oil, followed by vigorous polishing with a soft duster, improves the appearance of the marble, giving it a gloss. Oil, however, should not be applied to other than a smooth surface.

These should first be dusted, and the frames lightly wiped with a dry, clean cloth. Polish up the glass with a pad of soft newspaper, or if it requires more cleaning moisten a little fine whiting with methylated spirits, and rub this well over the glass with a soft rag, being careful not to touch the frame. Rub off again with a duster and polish with a chamois leather. If the frame is gilt, wipe it gently with a wet chamois leather and dry with a very soft duster-a piece of old silk is best.
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Can be removed by rubbing with a cloth dipped in paraffin, or if preferred the furniture can be washed with warm soapy water. It should be dried thoroughly and polished with a good furniture cream.

In damp rooms oxidised silver, brass and copper fenders, and other articles occasionally become discoloured. The safest way to remove this discoloration is to rub the metal work fairly briskly with a cloth soaked in oil. Any good furniture or linseed oil can be used for the purpose. For decorated and ornamental metal work, apply the oil with a stiff brush. It may be necessary to repeat this process once or twice, and in bad cases a good plan is to apply the oil overnight and remove it in the morning. Polish thoroughly with a soft duster.

Wring out a soft, clean woollen cloth after putting it in a bowl of hot water in which one teaspoonful of borax is dissolved. Then dip the cloth into a saucer containing ordinary whiting. Go over the paintwork with this until it is clean, frequently re-immersing the cloth in the water, wringing out, and applying whiting to it. Wipe paint over with a clean cloth, wrung out from clean water. Dry with a soft old towel and finally polish with a large chamois. The most delicate paintwork may be treated like this with excellent results.

When cleaning paint great difficulty is often experienced in removing dust from the cracks, ledges and frames of windows, bannisters, etc. An ordinary small enamel paint brush, which decorators call a " sash tool," is excellent for this purpose. First wet the paint with soapy water, apply soap to the brush, and work out the dirt with the bristles. Afterwards, rinse and dry in the usual way. Needless to say, only an old brush should be used for this purpose.

Wipe coloured painted doors with a damp cloth and leather to remove the traces of soot and dust. When quite dry, rub in a little good furnishing oil, or any good wax polish thinned down with turpentine. Polish lightly with an old silk duster, when the door will look as though newly painted. Doors of white paint should be sponged with water and wiped dry with a leather.

PAPIER MCHTRAYS Should be washed in warm soapy water and occasionally rubbed over with sweet ail. An excellent polished surface can be retained by the application of any good wax polish. This requires to be well rubbed in, and then finished off with an old silk duster.

Take some whiting and sweet oil and mix them to a thin paste with methylated spirits or a little ammonia. Apply this to the pewter with a soft rag, rubbing it well in. Rub off when dry and polish with a chamois leather.

Moisten a soft white cloth in alcohol, such as methylated spirit, and wipe the keys, rubbing the way of the grain. Polish with a soft linen cloth or chamois leather.

Burnt food can be removed from the rim of pie-dishes, plates, etc., by dipping a damp cloth into common salt, then into wood ash, and rubbing vigorously.

A mixture made by warming I lb. soft soap, I lb. powdered whiting, I lb. of sand, and z quarts of water is excellent for cleaning saucepans and baking pans. It can also be used for aluminium provided it is quickly applied and thoroughly rinsed off. When fat has burnt on the bottom of a saucepan, fill it with water, and leave for an hour or so; then empty out the water, and dip a soft saucepan brush into the cleaning mixture and well scrub the pan. The outside should also be polished by rubbing with some of the mixture. If this method of cleaning pans is adopted it will be found that food does not readily stick or burn in them.
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The finest steel wool is one of the best cleaners obtainable for suede shoes, Just brush the surface lightly with a small quantity of the steel wool, and the spots will disappear as if by magic. A petrol-cleaning brush is also most excellent.

If oil is inadvertently allowed to come into contact with brown shoes, an ugly stain appears. This may generally be removed by cleaning carefully with petrol, rubbing the spot with a circular movement. The appearance of shabby brown brogues can often be improved by cleaning thoroughly with turpentine, using a nail-brush for the cracks.

Stains caused by sea water are often difficult to remove from brown shoes. Dissolve a small lump of washing soda, the size of a sixpenny piece, in z tablespoonfuls of hot milk; clean the boots all over with the preparation and allow it to dry on the leather. Polish with any good brown boot polish.

Scullery sinks which have been badly neglected and from which stains cannot be removed by the usual friction powders, can be freed from discoloration by a solution of salts of lemon. Wash the sink to remove all grease with hot soapy water, rinse, and
put about two or three tablespoonfuls of the solution into the sink, brushing it in with an old nail-brush. When the discoloration has disappeared, remove all trace of the acid by thorough rinsing. Salts of lemon, being a poison, should be kept under lock and key, and should only be given to a responsible person to use. Acids are only recommended for sinks on which the glaze is already damaged, and which in consequence allow tea-stains, etc., to penetrate beneath the surface.

CARE OF SINKS AND DRAINS IN HOT WEATHER All sinks and pipes should be flushed with very hot, strong soda water at least twice a week in hot weather. After washing up, dissolve two tablespoonfuls of soda in boiling water and pour over the sink and down the waste pipe. An efficient disinfectant should also be used frequently.

This is excellent for cleaning the porcelain in the bath-room. It retains the scouring powder, produces a good amount of friction, and does not become stringy as a cloth does. It is easily rinsed, and is a joy to handle.

To lengthen the life of your sponge do not let it lie in soapy water, but rinse well in clean water after use. Squeeze out as much water as possible and place it to dry where the air will have free access to every part. A sponge-basket might be used, or it is quite a good plan to thread a soft tape through the sponge and to hang it up to dry. If the sponge should become greasy and soapy, soak it in strong salt and water. Squeeze it occasionally in this, and then rinse in plenty of cold or tepid water. When selecting a sponge, choose one of close and even texture and without any large holes ; remember, too, that it will swell considerably when put into water.

Rinse thoroughly with plenty of clean water. Squeeze tightly, then soak in a pint of water to which the juice of one lemon has been added. Allow to soak for about an hour, then squeeze clean. Rinse and dry, preferably out of doors.

Steel quickly becomes rusty during the summer months when fireplaces are not in use. To save labour, they can be painted with a good colourless varnish. All steelwork should be thoroughly well cleaned before lacquering, and warmed so that the varnish
is more easily applied. This is quickly done by placing fire-irons in a warm oven. Varnish like that used by paperhangers for varnishing sanitary wallpapers is suitable for steelwork.

To produce a brilliant polish on a kitchen range, clean it with ordinary blacklead to which some soap powder has been added. To get the best result with the least effort, the stove should be cleaned before it is quite cold, but not whilst very hot.
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The ironwork of kitchen stoves and sitting-room grates is very apt to become rusty when not in use regularly, particularly in damp weather. The use of a heat-resisting enamel obviates this difficulty and protects the metal.

If a false bottom is used, the space between the real bottom and the grating must be kept clear of ashes, or the fire will become clogged.
Fire-bricks should be renewed before they are burnt through or the ironwork will be burnt away as well, making much more expensive and extensive repairs necessary.
Before using a range for the first time, examine it to become thoroughly acquainted with the direction of the flues and the position of the soot or flue-cleaning doors. These doors must all be closed while the range is working. Clean the flues thoroughly at regular intervals, at least once a week when the fire is used daily. If there is a back boiler, the boiler flue must be cleaned every day.

First brush to remove all loose dust, then place fiat on a clean wooden table and scrub with a soft nail-brush, using warm water and soap. Rinse to remove all soap, then apply a solution of salts of lemon, working it in with a nail-brush.

If splashes of tar are found on the coach-work of motor-cars, prams, etc., these can easily be removed by the judicious use of a good metal polish. Apply a little on a clean soft rag, and rub lightly until the tar splashes disappear. Afterwards apply a little furniture cream or wax polish. This, of course, is not to be recommended as a general rule, but only for exceptional cases when the splashes will not yield to careful treatment with turpentine.

When the inside of a metal teapot becomes coated with tannin, put in a lump of soda the size of a walnut, fill to the brim with boiling water and close down the lid. Let this stand overnight, or until the water is cold. Then wash the pot well, and unless the brown crust is of long standing, the teapot should be quite clean. A repetition of the process is sometimes necessary. No teapot should be allowed to get encrusted with tannin, as it spoils the taste of the tea. A teapot should be well dried and aired before it is put away.

Put in a small quantity of salt and vinegar. Shake well and rinse thoroughly. If this does not remove all discoloration, a little silver sand can be used, although this should not be used unless necessary, as in time it will scratch the glass.

Wash first with soap and water, being careful not to use the cloth too wet. Then dry thoroughly, apply a little furniture polish or cream, and rub with a dry duster until bright and shining.

An excellent scouring paste for cleaning neglected tins can be made by mixing together equal proportions of pumice powder, soap powder, and whiting.

Remove as much dust as possible by the aid of a vacuum cleaner or gentle beating and brushing. Use hot bran to remove more obstinate dirt. This should be well rubbed into the fabric with a clean brush or with a soft pad made of an old white cloth. When all possible dirt has been removed by this means, brush off all trace of bran and clean any spots, sponging either with water or with a petrol brush. Spots of a greasy nature will require petrol or some other grease solvent, those of a sticky nature will be removed by careful sponging with soap and water.

The following simple method will restore wall-paper to a certain extent. Dust the walls down first, then take a pail of clean bran and a clean, dry sponge. Dip the sponge into the bran and rub over the paper gently and carefully. Do not use the same bran twice, but repeat the process if necessary.
Soil marks which are not due to surface dirt may sometimes be got rid of by rubbing with a large piece of clean pencil eraser, with a lump of yeast dough, or new bread. The dough or bread should be folded inwards and a clean part exposed, as necessary.
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Moisten any old cloth slightly with paraffin. Rub this over the windows. It removes all dirt and marks readily. Use another cloth for polishing. If well polished, the glass will shine and will be devoid of smears and bits of fluff from the cloth, and the process is very quick.


First wash the bath thoroughly, using hot water, a little soda, soap, and a scrubbing-brush. Be careful to get rid of all grease, rinse with clean water, and dry. Rub down any rough surfaces with fine sandpaper and brush away the dust. Then with a good paint-brush apply bath enamel. This can be bought ready prepared and in several different colours-white, cream, flesh-coloured, or eau-de-Nil. Allow the first coating of enamel to dry and smooth again with sandpaper if necessary. Then apply a second coating and dry as before. Some kinds of enamel will take one or two days to dry. When finished, fill the bath with cold water and allow this to remain for two days in order to harden the paint and take away the smell.

When the cane seats of chairs begin to sag, scrub first the top and then the bottom with hot soap and water. Dry in the open air. This causes the cane to shrink and makes the seats as firm as new ones.

A home-made cement can be made by mixing together 3 oz. gum sandrac, 3 oz. white shellac, and I gill methylated spirit. Spread the cement on the broken edges, press tightly together, and leave untouched for several hours.

These are sometimes fitted with thumb-latches. They are nice to look at and economical, but apt to rattle in windy weather. A simple way to remedy this is to insert a dome-headed screw either near the floor or the top of the wooden surround of the door. This screw should be inserted in the recess into which the door fits. The screw offers a slight resistance to the door when you close it and prevents the latch rattling. It is a rough-and-ready method, but the screw is quite inconspicuous.

Drains which have been stopped at the trap by " soft fouling " -soap curd, tea-leaves, rag, etc.-can generally be freed by the following device. Wrap sufficient old sacking round the end of a broomstick so that it will form a piston which will fit, but not too tightly, into the pipe below the grid. Then remove the grid, empty out some of the water, insert the improvised piston into the pipe, and work it up and down fairly rapidly. The pumping action set up will soon break down the stoppage. To prevent the sacking slipping off the broomstick, it is advisable to bore a hole or drive a long nail through the stick below the sacking, and to bind it tightly with strong string.

An effective draught-excluder for the bottom of a door can b e constructed in the following manner. Procure a piece of 1/2-inch board as long as the width of the door-frame, and about 4 in. wide. Tack a piece of felt to the lower edge and fix 2-in. cupboard hinges
to the upper edge. Screw a short length of brass strip (about 4 in.) on the back of the board near the bottom, at the opposite end from the door hinges. This should project about 1/2 in. over the edge of the board. This is to engage with the door-frame when the door closes. Attach the board to the door by means of the cupboard hinges, at such a height that the lower edge presses on the floor. Fix a spiral spring under slight tension, screwing its upper end to the door and its lower end about half-way down the board. The board should be painted on both sides to protect it. A drop of oil should be applied occasionally to the spring and hinges.

To obviate the need for frequent polishing, brass door knobs and other small movable fittings can be enamelled very successfully. First clean the parts ; this can be done with fine sandpaper or brick dust. In addition to cleaning, the surface is slightly roughened and gives a key which enables the enamel to adhere better. Coat evenly with good stove enamel, place in oven at a temperature of 300� F. for three hours. This gives a hard-wearing finish
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First rub down the taps with something of a gritty nature, such as brickdust or emery paper, then give them one or two coats of flat white undercoating paint, rubbing down each coat lightly, afterwards applying a coat of any good porcelain enamel sold for this purpose.

Small holes in enamelled baths and washing-up bowls can be mended by pouring over cement mixed to a fairly thick cream. The layer of cement must not be too thick, as it adds considerably to the weight.

Red bricks around fireplaces are apt to get discoloured and dark in appearance after they have been in use some time. The application of red ochre is not always satisfactory, and painting the tiles with ordinary oil paint changes their character. The use of a good-quality water paint or washable distemper, however, to match the colour of the bricks is found to be very satisfactory.
The water paint should be applied to the edges adjacent to the wall with a small brush, whilst a larger one may be used satisfactorily for the front and hearth.
To repair cracked firebricks, flues, etc., reliable cements can be purchased at any large stores.

When there are unsightly, but not deep scratches, such as would make refinishing absolutely necessary, try the following Cut about one-quarter of an inch from one end of a Brazil-nut kernel, and rub this freshly cut oily surface over the damaged part. The depression will still be there, but the ugly white streaks should have disappeared.

It sometimes happens that you wish to change the colour of a piece of furniture to match its surroundings, say from light to dark oak. To do this, scour the wood with pumice powder moistened with a little water. This roughens the surface and removes the polish. Then wash well with very strong soda-water, taking care to wash every part of the polish off. If necessary, re-scour any patches on which the polish still remains. Rinse several times with plenty of clean warm water to make sure that all the soda is removed. When the wood is thoroughly dry, re-stain in any colour you like, using spirit or water stain. When quite dry, apply two coats of beeswax or any good wax polish. This fills the pores of the wood and produces a good surface. Afterwards polish.

Make a pad with about six folds of thick brown paper, and soak it in water. Lay this on the insured part and apply a hot iron, pressing it on until the moisture has evaporated. Moisten the paper again, and repeat the process, if necessary, to raise the bruise level with the surface. Then polish.

Ink stains can be removed with a little oxalic acid. Be careful not to spread the acid over the wood, but apply it with a small brush or with the point of a feather. Wash off with warm water and polish in the usual way.

The following home-made polish is an excellent reviver and cleaner.
I gill linseed oil I gill turpentine.
1/2 gill methylated spirit. gill vinegar.
Shake well before use, apply sparingly, and polish with a soft duster. Before using a polish of this kind any sticky finger-marks should first be removed by sponging with a warm. damp cloth

Unpainted wooden garden furniture, such as oak and teak, requires, from time to time, the application of some preservative. Linseed oil is the most satisfactory to use ; not only does the rubbing in of linseed oil prevent the wood cracking, but it also darkens and improves the colour. After the summer season the wood is bleached, and an application of oil revives the colour
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Gas brackets that are in the bathroom or scullery often become shabby and rusty owing to the presence of steam. To prevent this, rub them over once a week with an oily cloth, using an old soft brush slightly moistened with oil to get into the crevices, then rub with a clean soft cloth. Care must be taken not to use sufficient oil to collect the dust. Brackets that are rusty must be rubbed with fine emery cloth, when they can be given a coat of some good black or coloured enamel or aluminium paint.

To prevent any escape of gas from a tiny hole or crack until the services of a fitter can be obtained, mix some shredded soap with powdered whiting and rub on to the crack. This should, however, only be regarded as an emergency filling.

Mirrors from which the silver has become worn in patches can be repaired as follows : Mix 3 oz. tin, 3 oz. bismuth, and 6 oz. mercury together and warm in a small, clean, iron vessel or a large iron ladle. Paste the edge of the glass to be silvered with a narrow strip of paper to prevent the mixture running off during the process of silvering. Thoroughly clean and warm the glass and pour a small quantity of the hot mixture upon it, tilting it first one way and then the other, until the spot is well covered. Remove the paper, and apply a coat of paint when quite hard.

Place the curtain flat on the table with an ironing blanket or folded cloth underneath the torn part. Take a piece of lace or net curtaining to match as nearly as possible, and large enough to cover the hole, dip it in cold starch, wring out tightly, place it over the hole, and press with a hot iron. The join will be almost invisible, as the patch merges into the fabric quite smoothly.

DIRECTIONS FOR LACQUERING First thoroughly clean the brass parts to be re-lacquered with dilute spirits of salts and brick-dust or pumice powder. Wash and dry thoroughly to remove all trace of acid and grit. Burnish with very fine and partly worn emery paper. A softer tone can be obtained by using any good metal polish, but special care is necessary to remove all trace of polish before the lacquer is applied.
The lacquering should be done in a warm, dry room, free from any moisture, and the brass should first be warmed in the oven if possible. Try not to breathe over the parts while lacquering is in progress, as any moisture will give a frosty appearance.

Grind up some old corks very finely and mix with liquid glue. Put this mixture in the holes, smoothing the surface carefully, and, when set quite hard, rub over with glass paper, colouring with paint or stain to match the linoleum. The repair, if carefully done, will hardly show.

Linoleum that has become worn and unsightly can be neatly repaired. First, cut out the worn part with a sharp knife. Place this piece as a pattern on a new cutting of linoleum, taking care to match the design, if there is one. Glue the back of the new piece very carefully and place in the hole, pressing it down well. The patch, if neatly applied, will be hardly noticeable.
Painted linoleum and oil-cloth which has become unsightly on account of the pattern having worn in patches, may be given a new lease of life if simply painted with a hard-wearing paint. The floor should first be well scrubbed to remove all trace of wax or oil polish. When thoroughly dry, apply one of the special hard-wearing paints sold for this purpose. If a mat is placed where traffic is concentrated, e.g. on the threshold, painted linoleum will wear for a considerable time.

Large nails leave holes in furniture and wood-fixtures when removed. These can be neatly filled with a mixture of fine sawdust and glue. Pour in hot and press tightly in position. It makes a very firm filling. When quite hard, the surface may be rubbed with partly worn sandpaper.
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Dark oak frames that have become bleached by exposure to sunlight (or light-coloured ones that are required to be darkened) can be made to look as good as new by the use of oak wood dye or stain. Remove the picture from the frame, dust and clean the latter, and remove as much as possible of any old stain by scrubbing with hot soda-water, then apply the dye or water stain evenly and allow to dry. If the frame is not sufficiently dark, apply a second coat. On no account use a varnish stain, as this will spoil the appearance of the wood.

Wash in warm water containing a little soap. Rinse thoroughly. When quite dry polish with a sparing application of any good wax polish. Every trace of wax must be removed or the paint will look smeary.

Cut a piece of sacking slightly larger than the measurements of the bottom of the pail or pan and press it firmly in position. Make an even paste of cement and water and pour over the sacking ; allow this to stand for about an hour, then pour in another thin layer of cement until the sacking is entirely hidden. Do not use the pail until the cement bottom has had time to harden ; this will take about two days.

When water in a bath, etc., refuses to run away as quickly as it should, owing to an obstruction in the pipe, this can frequently be remedied at home if a 6-feet length of spiral wire is worked down the pipe. When withdrawn, this will bring away the accumulation of soap, etc., which generally forms the obstruction.

One often needs putty for various purposes in the home. It is very easy to make the quantity desired by mixing some unslaked lime in hot glue. If coloured putty is needed, the colour desired should be mixed with some dry whiting, and then both added to the lime and glue.

This need not be a messy job if it is done in the following manner. Make the new case of strong ticking and leave a 10-inch opening. Make an opening in the old case the same size, and then sew the two openings together. Now shake the feathers down into the new case, and run a tacking thread just below the opening. Unpick and remove the old cover, and then over-sew the seam neatly.
If the ticking is not very close in texture, it is a good plan to rub over the inside of the case with beeswax before filling, as this will prevent the points of the feathers working through. If the feathers are soiled, the simplest way to wash them is to turn them into a large muslin bag and sew them up in the same way as above, and then to wash them in one or two soapy lathers, well rinse,
and dry in the open air. This will make little or no mess and the feathers will be beautifully clean.

Fix a neat piece of the inner tube of an old cycle tyre to the frame of the door. It may either be stuck in position or secured with brass tacks, and a neater appearance is obtained by painting it to match the woodwork of the door

If the weakness appears along the seam, a strip of fine unbleached linen can be fixed by sticking with a little solution of celluloid. Most of the waterproof lacquers sold for coating brasswork can be used as the adhesive. A small hole can be repaired with a rubber patch and solution in the same manner as a bicycle tyre is mended.

Sealing-wax can be used satisfactorily for effecting small repairs in enamel basins, jugs, etc., not used to contain hot liquids. By the following simple method tiny holes can be mended and the vessel given a new lease of life : Get a stick of sealing-wax the colour of the vessel to be repaired, cleanse and thoroughly dry the part to be made good, and apply the sealing-wax, melted, over the worn surface, pressing down firmly and neatly. Any leakage will be effectively stopped.
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If a sink is only partially blocked the following method is usually very successful in clearing it, though it is not of course suitable for a complete blockage. Push a long piece of string, to which a tiny piece of rag is attached, down the pipe as far as possible and turn the water tap on fully. The rush of water is usually sufficient to carry the string down the pipe. When it appears at the other end, pull it well through and attach a larger piece of rag to about the centre, then pull backwards and forwards for a short time.

Fix three cotton reels to the bottom of the sink-tidy with nails. This raises the receptacle from the sink, and prevents water and other waste liquids that are thrown down the sink from rinsing out the contents of the basket, and so keeps the sink much cleaner. RENOVATING

Kitchen tins, or metal articles such as a housemaid's box, can be renovated by painting them with Brunswick black thinned with turpentine. This gives the tins a bronze colour, which is quite attractive in appearance and preferred by some housewives to black paint.

If red tiles are first washed in the ordinary manner, and when dry are washed over with thin starch water they will be given a slightly glazed appearance which will improve their colour. It will also be found that with this process they will keep clean for a greater length of time. Any starch left over from laundry work, if sufficiently diluted, may be used for this purpose.

Fibre or canvas trunks soon look shabby. If given a coat of varnish their appearance will be greatly improved, and the trunk is made waterproof. If torn, stretch the canvas in position before varnishing. Leather trunks may be renovated by the generous application of beeswax and turpentine, or liquid or paste wax polish

The following mixture can be used and gives excellent results 1 eggcupful of methylated spirit; 1 eggcupful of vinegar; twice as much linseed oil and turps. This must be shaken well before using.
Canvas suitcases that have been torn or damaged by heavy trunks can be mended by carefully patching with strong linen. Unbleached linen is the best to use. Cut a patch somewhat larger than the rent; round off the corners, and fix securely with glue. To make the patch inconspicuous, paint it black, green or brown, to match the colour of the case.

An amateur never finds patching with silk a very satisfactory method of repairing an umbrella. The damage can be rendered practically inconspicuous if a piece of black court plaster somewhat bigger than the size of the hole is attached to the inner surface of the covering.
A rent in a rubber mackintosh can be repaired on a similar principle if some rubber solution is applied to a piece of the material, which is then placed over the rent. A little French chalk should be rubbed over the patch to complete the process and remove all trace of stickiness.

Floors that have been varnished and are worn and shabby must be thoroughly cleaned before any fresh stain is applied. Prepare some hot and fairly strong soda water, wet the boards with this solution, and allow it time to soak, then scrub hard the way of the grain. Afterwards rinse with clear warm water.
If, when the floor is dry, there are patches where the varnish still remains, these must be rubbed with sandpaper or fine steel wool. If these methods fail, methylated spirit can be used. This is an effective though more expensive treatment.

When a papered wall becomes damaged or soiled, the paper can be patched so that it is almost inconspicuous. First remove the dirty or torn paper by soaking it slightly with warm water. Cut out a piece of wall-paper somewhat larger than that which has been removed. Tear the edge so that it is irregular and jagged. If the patch is carefully pasted, the unevenness of the edge makes it hardly noticeable.
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Mix 2 oz. tartaric acid or 4 Oz. cream of tartar, 2 oz. bicarbonate of soda, and 4 oz. ground rice thoroughly, and if possible sieve once or twice to ensure absolutely thorough mixing.

Shred 2 oz. beeswax, place in a jar and add 1/2 pint turpentine. Stand the jar in boiling water. On account of the inflammability of turpentine, the pan should on no account be allowed to stand on the stove.

Enough paraffin should be added to 2 oz. rottenstone, 3 Oz. soft soap and 2 oz. whiting until the mixture is of a thin, creamy consistency.
Another excellent polish can be made by mixing 4 Oz. whiting with I gill oleic acid, and adding paraffin until the mixture is of a creamy consistency. About I gill will be required.

An abrasive cleanser suitable for cleaning tins, neglected sinks, etc., can be made by thoroughly mixing 3/4 lb. pumice powder with 4 Oz. soap powder and 4 oz. powdered sodium carbonate.

A mixture consisting of equal parts of soap powder and whiting is excellent for cleaning all kinds of enamel ware, while it can also be used for cleaning very soiled paint, when soap and water alone do not prove satisfactory. A paste cleanser for those who prefer it can be made by adding whiting to warmed soap jelly until a paste of the desired consistency is obtained. The mixture should be well beaten, adding a few drops of methylated spirits if desired.

FURNITURE CREAM 2 1/2 oz. beeswax; a good 1/2 pint turpentine; as much soft soap as will lie on a shilling; as much potassium carbonate as will lie on a penny; a small 1/2 pint of warm water. The beeswax should be dissolved in the turpentine, in the same way as for making " beeswax and turpentine," i.e. by shredding the wax and adding it to the turpentine in a jar, then allowing the mixture to stand in a pan of hot water until all the wax has dissolved. Care should be taken to ensure that there is no naked
charcoal in them for a few hours. Charcoal put into a small muslin bag and placed near game absorbs any odour.

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Enamel trays similar to those used in butchers' shops will be found most serviceable in the house, as, apart from its utility, this highgrade enamelware imparts a tone of cleanly efficiency to a kitchen. Whilst pre-eminently suitable for keeping meat fresh, a fair-sized tray of this kind is handy when trussing poultry, filleting fish, or preparing steak. In the pantry it is convenient for such items as bacon, butter, lard, and margarine, all of which can be placed on it and thus be transported with a minimum of effort. A container of this substance is also suitable in the nursery for holding baby's bottles, milk, etc.

These are very useful for holding in position the backs of pictures and for strengthening photograph frames.

Satisfactory fire-lighters are difficult to obtain, but the following home-made ones prove excellent.
Take a sheet of newspaper, fold lightly in half, roll up, twist the roll lightly in the centre, or tie with string ; then dip in melted paraffin wax or kerosene. The former dries in less than a minute, the latter takes longer, and for preference it should be dried out of doors.
An alternative method is to put old newspapers, or other unglazed paper, into a pail of water and let them soak for several days. Then tear up the pulp and squeeze it into hard balls. Place them in a warm place to dry. These will be found excellent for lighting fires, or to keep a fire in. They will also make very good fuel for the copper fire.

A home-made kneeling mat can be evolved from two rush fish baskets, one slightly larger than the other. Cut off the handles of the smaller, fill the bag with straw, paper, or some other suitable filling, and then sew up the open end. Place this bag inside the
empty one, again sewing up the open end. The mat is then ready for use and may be hung up by the handles when not in use.

A mackintosh that is too shabby for wear can be made to serve very usefully as an overall for washing day or when dyeing, by removing the sleeves and sloping out the arm holes. The raw edges can be neatened by binding with some bright-coloured braid. Other pieces cut to shape could be used for placing under the bibs of very young children

When rubber hot-water bottles show signs of leaking they need not be discarded, but may be partly filled with hot sand instead of water. The sand should be placed in a baking-tin and heated in the oven.
Old bottles also come in handy as kneeling mats when gardening.

An old stone hot-water bottle which has cracked need not be discarded. It should be filled with salt and heated when required by placing in a warm oven. The salt retains the heat for a considerable time and a bottle filled in this way is excellent in cases of illness.

When one essays to save cobbler's bills by fixing rubber heels to boots or shoes at home, it is often found that the screw of a former rubber heel has worn the hole in the leather too large to accommodate the new-comer comfortably. This defect is easily remedied by hammering a small plug of wood (even a match-stick will answer the purpose sometimes) into the hole, and then forcing the new screw into the fibres of the wood.
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Many people possess a discarded marble-topped washstand. The marble slab, if removed, can be fixed to the side of a lavatory basin, where it makes an excellent shelf and is particularly easy to keep clean. If the washstand is in good condition, but is no longer required to serve its original purpose, the marble top can frequently be replaced by a wooden one, and the washstand thus converted into a dressing-table.

Instead of using twine or any kind of string for hanging up brooms, mops, brushes, and all kinds of kitchen utensils, use ordinary picture wire as a substitute. It will wear indefinitely, and being stiff will catch on hooks more easily than string.

A rough and ready floor polisher can be made from a worn-out broom-head. Cut the bristles clean to the top and nail on a thick padding of wool or flannel. Cover all with a piece of velveteen. The tacks used for fixing this should be driven in quite flush to the top of the broom-head, otherwise they might scratch or damage the wainscoting. Tie a clean soft duster over the velveteen this can be removed whenever necessary for washing purposes.

This is practical in many ways. Make a small bag of double cloth (so that the sand will not sift through), and fill it with fine
dry sand until it is plump and hard. Then sew it shut and cover it with some pretty, material. This kind of pin-cushion is heavy enough not to fall about easily, and the sand keeps the pins and needles sharp and shiny.

A rainproof shopping bag has many advantages over an open basket, especially in wet weather. Several of these may be made from the best parts of an old raincoat: each bag simply requires two pieces of equal size, with allowance for a strengthening hem at the top. It is easy to avoid buttonholes and pockets and contrive a large bag from the back of the coat, one from the bottom portion of each front, and a smaller one from the tops of the fronts. Strong handles can be made from the trimmings, using several rows of machine stitching to stiffen them.

When woollen stockings are beyond wearing, wash and dry them, cut off the feet, draw one leg over the other, and then fold over and tack down the sides. You then have a splendid polisher for stoves, floors, or bright articles.
An alternative way is to cut them into very fine shreds and use them for filling cushions. They make a delightfully soft filling.

It is advisable to keep old tooth brushes, as they can be used in a number of ways. Boot polish is sometimes sold in jars, and when the jars are almost empty an old tooth brush can often reach the polish when an ordinary shoe brush fails. Similarly it can also be used for reaching the polish round the bottom of an almost empty tin.

When boiling puddings in cloths, place one or two lids from 2-lb. treacle tins in the bottom of the saucepan. This will prevent the pudding from sticking to the saucepan.

Strips cut 3/16 inch will stretch considerably and can be used instead of tapes for stretched kitchen and other small muslin blinds. Wider strips can also be used for numerous other purposes, such as the binding of broken woodwork after gluing.
Rubber soles can also be cut to fit baby's first suede shoes to prevent slipping. Use a leather punch to make holes 1/2 inch apart around
the edge. Lay the rubber sole on the sole of the shoe and mark through the holes with a pencil, then punch the suede to correspond. If you have some suede leather use a strip about 1/8 inch wide to lace the rubber soles to the shoes. This will last longer than sewing, as thread wears rather quickly.
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When these gloves are too worn to be of further use for wear, they can be utilised to make window polishing pads. Cut open the fingers, remove any buttons or press-stud fastenings, lay the gloves flat on the table, placing several on top of each other ; six
is a good number to use. Keep in position by machining or backstitching a small circle round the middle of the pad.

Few women realise what a helpful article a wire letter-basket, such as is used on many office desks, can be in the kitchen. It makes a splendid drainer for dishes, a rack for cooling cakes and bread, and is very handy for baking jacket potatoes in the oven.

The clean white ash that can easily be collected after a wood fire should be kept in a jar near the scullery sink, as it is valuable for removing stains on metal and china, makes a good scouring mixture for the sink, and a little added to the washing-up water softens it and saves soap.

A folding card-table can be made into a very useful writing-table by the addition of a bookshelf for railway guides or other books of reference. A table with X-pattern legs is best, and by fixing two pieces of thin wood-about as long as the table is wide and joined together to form a trough-to triangular pieces at each end, a handy bookshelf is made which will rest securely in the V formed by the upper parts of the table legs. The weight of the books will keep the case in place, and if it is necessary to fold up the table, shelf and books can be taken out quite easily.


For sewing materials or books, a bag attachment fitted on the side of an arm-chair will be found extremely useful. It can be made from a piece of material 24 in. x 15 in., either matching or to tone with the fabric with which the chair is upholstered. Double the stuff and French-seam each side to within 3 in. of the top, then make a wide hem along the open ends of the bag. Now take two strips of material IS in. X 4 in. and fold lengthwise to make the bands by which the bag is fixed to the chair. Attach one end of each band to the hem, near the seams. Slip a rod through the open ends of the hem on the side of the bag which has the bands, and stitch down the opening. This rod stiffens the bag and keeps it a good shape. For chairs with open arms, the bag may be fixed by placing the bands over one arm and securing their loose ends to the hem of the bag by buttons and button-holes. For chairs with padded arms, the bands should be attached to the inner side of the hem and their loose ends fastened by buttons and button-holes, the buttons being sewn to the arm of the chair.

Stitch a wide strip of unbleached calico to the sides or ends of the blanket. The depth of calico depends entirely upon how much additional length or width is required. The calico is then used for the " tuck in " and the warmth obtainable from the blanket is in no way diminished.

In making rompers for small children, it is a good plan to make two rows of stitching with the sewing-machine the length of the button-hole and so close together that there is barely room to cut between. Cut between the rows and work the button-hole over the machine stitching. This doubles the strength of the button-hole.

The problem of keeping a restless child warm in bed is solved by the use of cot covers. These are made like large pillow-cases and should be 3 inches wider than the cot itself. Along the sides and at one end sew double pieces of tape at intervals, to be tied to the cot rails or lattice-work. Put the blankets or eiderdown into the cover, and stitch the end up very loosely. This does away with the necessity for buttons, that might be a temptation to busy little fingers. If the cover is tied firmly down after the child is in bed, he will be able to move and turn over without uncovering himself.
Very attractive cot covers may be made from flannel or similar soft fabric, the underside white and the upper either pink or blue, daintily decorated with a monogram or embroidery.
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If two pieces of double-knit Turkish towelling, 36 inches wide, in brown or some other serviceable colour, are joined together and the edges bound with carpet binding, a strong yet soft crawling-rug is made. This is easy to wash and will be found suitable for use in baby's playing-pen, etc. Tapes should be sewn to the four corners.

When making a dress or a jumper with turn-back cuffs, you will find it a good plan to sew the tiniest snap-fastener about I inch from the edge of each cuff, and fasten it to the sleeve. By this means the cuff will always stay in place, and if the garment has to be washed, the cuff can be so much more easily ironed and will not require untacking each time.

When making curtains of large-meshed filet net, it is advisable to place a strip of brown paper, about 3 inches wide, along the hem before machining. This will prevent the material gathering up during the process of machining. When the stitching is completed, the paper can easily be torn away close to the perforations caused by the needle.

Thin net or muslin curtains can be made to keep very neat if they are threaded with narrow elastic instead of a rod or tape. Make a neat loop each end and slip it over two small hooks fixed to the window frame. The elastic wears well and the curtains do not sag.

When sewing the ball-and-socket snaps on a garment, always sew the ball snap on the upper piece. The back of this is flat and will leave no mark on the outside of the cloth, while the socket-snap leaves a round mark in the centre. This is especially noticeable on any smooth or hard-finished goods.

When making cushions and pillows use only the best quality linen or union ticking. Rinse and rub inside the case thoroughly with beeswax, paying particular attention to the seams.

When making narrow girdles or ties, the dressmaker will find a piece of stout string or piping cord very helpful. Machine the material, placing the string inside the narrow strip. This should be attached at the first end, and when it is necessary to turn the girdle right side out, a firm pull of the loose end of the string and a little coaxing with the fingers will accomplish the transformation with ease.

A most useful article in a work-basket is a little roll Of 2-inch gauze bandage. Use it to reinforce bindings where buttons have been torn off, to bind the inside of neck-bands, or any place that is not going to show. It is also useful to place under darns in white stockings or under-garments.

When hemstitching, wrap a piece of coloured paper around the first finger of the left hand, sewing it on if necessary. Use this when doing the hemstitching; the fine threads are much more easily seen and eye-strain is eliminated.

Good quality hatter's plush is not cheap, but if an old silk hat is available, the silk plush can readily be stripped off. Cut off the edge rim with an old pair of scissors, place the end of the scissors under the edge of the silk, and raise it slightly so that a good hold
is obtained. By gently pulling the plush the sides of the crown
are soon stripped. The top of the crown is removed separately. Sufficient material is thus obtained to make a good-sized handbag.
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It is often impossible to keep the lining of a dress from slipping and showing at the neck. When it cannot be tacked to the neck of the dress, try clasping the dress and lining together by sewing clip fasteners on the two shoulders. If these are sewed on properly, they are not noticeable, and the slipping is prevented.

Unworn parts of old stiff linen cuffs and collars, cut neatly and pierced to allow of string being passed through, make excellent labels for use on parcels.

Thin places on table linen or sheets may be quickly and satisfactorily mended by being darned on a lock-stitch machine. Place a thin piece of muslin, or an old handkerchief, underneath and machine backwards and forwards; when the place is covered with the stitching, cut away the fabric from underneath close to the darning. When starched and ironed the dam is very inconspicuous.

Adhesive tape used for strapping cuts, etc., can be used successfully for mending a rent in a mackintosh. Draw the torn edges together, place a strip of the tape over them on the wrong side, press gently with a warm iron. If done carefully, this makes a very neat join.

Inexpensive and attractive mats can be made at home with very little trouble from stair carpet, bought by the yard, and bound by hand with carpet binding. Hair cord carpet used in this way is particularly serviceable

It often happens that while knitting, composition needles become bent. By pouring hot water over them and straightening them immediately with your fingers, and then dipping the needles into cold water, the needles will be perfect once more.

Everyone knows how difficult it sometimes is to thread a needle with wool. The following hint may be helpful: Take a short length of sewing-cotton, place the two ends together, and pass them through the eye of the needle. Then pass the wool through the loop, and pull through. The needle is quickly and easily threaded in this manner.

If a sewing-machine needle is blunt, sharpen it on the broken edge of a broken saucer or plate.

If, when stringing beads, all needles are too large, let the melted wax from a burning candle drop on the end of your thread. Twist the end between the fingers, and when hardened you will have a fine substitute for a needle.

The rather thick cord used for piping loose chair-covers is very apt to shrink the first time the covers are washed, thereby causing the seams to have a puckered appearance. If the cord is washed, boiled, and dried before being used, this difficulty is overcome.

Line the pocket with a piece of soft leather such as pliable nappa or strong suede. Mend the hole and make a pocket from two pieces of leather so cut that when inserted into the pocket they do not come nearer the mouth than the ordinary lining. Top sew the leather lining firmly round the sides and bottom, and then secure in position.

Most women are apt to catch their pockets on door-knobs and other projections, often spoiling the appearance of an otherwise
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good dress or apron by a rent that no clever mender can conceal. To prevent this, rip the pocket down I inch on either side, finish it with a hem, and sew a fastener at the top. Then, when the pocket catches, the fastener loosens, and no rent is made.

Fine sand enclosed in a strong case makes a cushion which is heavy enough to stay where it is placed and which keeps the pins and needles sharp and bright.
If bran is used for stuffing pin-cushions, it should be thoroughly well baked in the oven before being used, or it is likely to become sour and smell unpleasant after the cushion is made.

It is almost impossible to dispense with a rag-bag, especially when there are children in the house and clothes constantly requiring renovation. But precious time is often spent hunting through a capacious bag for the particular bit of stuff needed. An ideal bag can be made out of coloured mosquito netting, the exact roll wanted can be easily seen, and it prevents the necessity of emptying the bag for a weary search. Moreover, the netting will be found to wear well. The same idea might be applied to buttons-if kept in a wide-mouthed bottle they can be easily seen.

When scissors become blunt a quick and efficient remedy is to put a steel knitting needle between the two blades and close the scissors on it as though one were going to cut the knitting needle in half, letting it slip to the points of the scissors. When this has been repeated several times, the scissors will have regained their original sharpness.

A few minutes spent on cleaning and oiling the various parts of a sewing machine will add years of efficient service to it. Turn the machine back, and notice the accumulation of fluff and dust under the feed. Fold a bit of old linen round a hairpin and remove every particle. Then thoroughly clean the whole machine with a rag soaked in paraffin. This loosens old caked-on dirt. Run the machine for a minute, and wipe off all superfluous oil. Finally apply a few drops of best machine oil to all the holes. Wipe thoroughly with a clean duster to remove all trace of oil.

If when stitching or hand-sewing calico, or other highly dressed cotton fabrics, the material is first rubbed with a little dry soap or beeswax, the needle slips more easily and the tedium of the work is minimised.

Cut out the worn parts of an old sheet and make into casement curtains. They can then be dyed to match the colour scheme of your room. Bolton sheeting or cotton twill is particularly suitable for this purpose.

Many silks, especially glac silk and crpe de Chine, are heavily weighted, usually with tin phosphate. Excessive weighting may very easily be detected by burning a tiny piece of the silk. If much weighted, it will not bum readily and will leave an ash clearly showing the original structure of the silk. An unweighted silk burns more readily and the ash formed shows no indication of the original structure of the silk.

It is a good plan when working the heel and toe to knit in some linen thread along with the wool. This will strengthen the parts where holes are most likely to occur, and the socks will last twice as long without mending.

Shabby felt hats can be made to serve a useful purpose if they are first brushed and beaten to remove all dust. Then take a paper pattern of your foot by standing on a piece of paper and outlining the shape with a pencil. A little alteration may be necessary to
fit different shoes. Besides costing nothing, they are particularly warm for cold weather wear.
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Fingers are often pricked during the course of needlework, and bloodstains appear on the material. These can be removed by damping a small quantity of starch and placing it over the stain. When dry the starch should be rubbed or brushed off, and no trace of the marks should remain. If, however, they are not completely removed by the first application the process may be repeated.

Cut a piece of black net larger than the hole, rub it till it is soft, and then stitch it neatly on to the wrong side of the stocking under the hole. Darn in the usual way, and the net will be found to give extra support.

The problem of keeping lingerie straps from view when a boatshaped neck frock is worn is an ever-present one, even with the use of lingerie shoulder-clasps. The trouble can be obviated by having a small self-coloured strip of material inside the dress neck across the shoulder-seam. The end nearest the neck should be kept in position with a press-stud, the other can be sewn securely. Pass this under all the lingerie straps and fasten with the snap, thus keeping them in place.

When a tablecloth shows signs of wear, a narrow strip should be torn off one side and one end and the edges of the cloth re hemmed. This will alter the " fold " of the cloth, and so lengthen its period of usefulness. When it again shows wear, the best portions may be cut into squares and hemmed for use as nursery table napkins, or made into small tray cloths by the addition of a suitable edging.

Place black tissue paper over the metallic fabric so that air and light are excluded. Pack it away in a box as air-tight as possible. TO

When running a new elastic or tape through underwear, sew one end of the new tape to one end of the old. Then, as the old tape is pulled out, the new tape will be pulled in.

If a delicate muslin is torn, it may be neatly mended by placing the torn part, with a new piece of the material underneath, over an embroidery hoop. This will hold all firmly and make the delicate darning of the hole a comparatively easy matter.

Holes in the top of a silver thimble may be repaired at home with sealing-wax. Drop a very small quantity of warm wax inside the thimble. Damp the middle finger with cold water and press the thimble on well.

When dish-towels become so thin that they get soaked through almost immediately, try stitching two of them together. This will give them double life, and there will be double the comfort in using them. They need not be the same size. Place the smaller one neatly on the top of the larger, and stitch along the edge. Worn bedroom towels can be utilised in the same way. They are often made of nice huckaback or damask, but too shabby for bedroom use. If two are stitched together they will make a splendidly absorbent dish-towel. The process is not to be recommended for hand-towels, but for kitchen use it is a great success.

A large buttonhole, backed with tape to strengthen it, worked on the edge of a towel is more convenient than a loop of tape, and wears better. Towels without tape loops are also more convenient to launder, as there is nothing to catch in the wringer or iron.

It sometimes happens that a transfer is ironed accidentally on to a wrong portion of material. If this occurs, the design is readily removed by rubbing it well with a clean soft rag dipped in methylated spirits. This treatment will not harm coloured or delicate fabrics.
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Transfer patterns for embroidery or other needlework may be kept indefinitely by the following device, which is a distinct advantage when one's favourite design is out-of-date and unobtainable in the shops. Take the used transfer, lay it on a piece of drawing paper, and place a piece of carbon paper between, the copying side towards the drawing paper. Trace over the pattern with a sharply pointed, hard pencil. This will give a clear reprint. When you wish to use the pattern again, take a copy on tracing paper, and with the aid of carbon paper transfer it to the material.

Embroidery transfers may be used a second time if the following method is employed. Tack the transfer firmly on to the material to be worked, using a running stitch, and follow the lines of the pattern, stitching through both paper and material. If the design is for braiding, or one with a practically continuous line, a sewing machine will do the work for you. When the whole design has been covered, pull away the thin paper, and the pattern will stand out plainly marked by the lines of stitching. White cotton should be used for washing embroidery, otherwise a cotton of a colour contrasting with the background will show the design more clearly.

The hardest part in making tucks by hand is to get them even, and yet they are a pretty trimming and a great convenience on children's dresses. Try this method; Use the sewing-machine, the tucker, a coarse needle, and no cotton, and crease firmly as you work. Then it is easy to use the needle holes as a guide for the hand sewing, and the result is quick and even work.


Often it is difficult to provide a bed for a young baby visitor. Put a flat pillow in a small drawer from a chest or bureau, cover it with a blanket, and you have a safe, comfortable bed. It can be put on two chairs near the mother's bed for convenience.

The blackboard should first be well rubbed down with glass paper. Apply two coats of any good prepared flat black paint or of ordinary black paint composed of vegetable black, two parts of boiled oil, and one part of turpentine. Allow each coat to dry, and rub it well down before proceeding. Then apply the following dressing mix together two parts of turpentine and one part of japanned gold size, and vegetable black; to a pint of this black pigment add half a pound of powdered emery or pumice powder. For the final coat take six ounces of white shellac, one pint of spirits of wine, add sufficient lamp-black to make the mixture a dense black, and apply one coat to the board. Allow to harden for two or three days before use.

Long rubber Wellington boots, so necessary for children on stormy days, very often get soaked inside. To dry them quickly, procure some bran, warm it in an iron shovel, and pour it into the boots. When this is cold, warm it again and repeat the process until all the moisture has been absorbed and the boots are thoroughly dry. The bran should not be allowed to get very hot FOR BABY'S COLD
Mix one drop of oil of eucalyptus with an egg-spoonful of Vaseline. After the evening bath cleanse each nostril with a little Vaseline, and then, by means of a screw of cotton-wool, insert a very tiny portion of the above mixture into each nostril. This may be repeated night and morning, and affords great relief.

It is not every mother who recognises the wisdom of providing for each child some definite place where his own belongings may be kept. If each child can have his own room, that, of course, is ideal. The next best thing is to have some one article of furniture, a cupboard, chest of drawers, or set of shelves, as the child's very own. The right of absolute ownership invests the child with a dignity which is worth much trouble to secure.

A " dressing-up " box provides endless amusement, provided it is only brought out occasionally. Any odd garment, a top hat, a bunchy umbrella , bright parasol, old lace curtains, artificial flowers may be added to it. Red Indian head-dresses are easily made of a double strip of bright cotton joined by elastic and feathers painted red, blue, and yellow stitched into the double stuff. A long red cotton sash and red cap can make a pirate.
To the excitement, daggers, swords, and shields can be cut out old cardboard boxes, and the blades be covered
with silver pap A burnt cork for making up is useful, though not always popular with those in authority.
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The making of jigsaw puzzles is fascinating amusement for dark days in the nursery. Select a pretty picture and paste it on a fairly thick piece of smooth cardboard. When quite dry, cut the picture into many pieces of different sizes and shapes, and shake these up in a box before trying to fit them together.

A gay frieze to be hung just out of reach of mischievous fingers by means of drawing-pins can be made from strips of black, shiny paper 13 inches by 45 inches, if on each strip four pictures from the covers of Good Housekeeping are pasted. The lighter-coloured pictures give the best results, and the strips look more attractive if they do not touch each other, as the unbroken black band is too overwhelming.

There is always a danger of children rocking their high chair over when in it, or pulling it over on top of them when learning to walk. Try this safeguard. Put an ordinary screen-door hook on the back of the high chair and a screw-eye in the woodwork in each room where you usually put the baby. The chair can be hooked to the wall in this way, and there will be no danger of its being toppled over.

Tack a piece of white oilcloth on the wall where the kiddies can reach it easily. Let them cut out pictures and paste them on the oilcloth: When they get tired of the pictures, wash them off with a cloth and warm water. Then the picture-board is ready for another set of pictures. Perhaps they will cut out a picture of a barn and paste it near the top of the " board," and then all around it they may paste animals of all kinds, chickens, etc. Soon you will find them displaying much ingenuity in arranging different pictures.

Raffia work for children is a delightful occupation, training them (boys and girls) in the blending of colour and in ingenuity, besides providing many useful and dainty articles for the home. For sick youngsters, when a day in bed is necessary, it is invaluable. Provide them with an ounce of the natural coloured raffia and several other pretty shades, and they can make beautiful table mats, key baskets, thimble and tape cases, teapot stands, and extremely pretty table-napkin rings. It is fascinating work and very simple, the youngsters become so engrossed that the ailment is forgotten and the restless, nervy child is soothed. The raffia needle is flat with a blunt point and so quite harmless for little fingers ; the raffia itself and the little bundles of pliable cane are quite cheap to buy.

The soles of baby's first toddling shoes are often made of suede, and this, when baby begins to walk, gets smooth and slippery, which means tumbles. Rub the little soles frequently with coarse sandpaper to make them rough again. (For alternative treatment see page 57.

One is often confronted with the problem of keeping the bathroom neat without spending too much valuable time in performing the duty. Sometimes it seems a hopeless task with a number of children to throw towels down and only one pair of hands to pick them up. Try giving the little ones towels and a face cloth of a special colour ; they will like the idea of having these as their very own and will take a pride in putting them in their proper places. The appearance of the bathroom will be greatly improved as to neatness, and the towels will not become so badly soiled.

Children are always dropping the strings attached to toys they pull along the floor. Try attaching a large button to the end of each string i it will give them something to hold.
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In applying alcohol to the skin in " rubs," the patient finds great discomfort in the slapping on of the liquid and the attempt of the nurse to keep it from running over the skin. By putting the alcohol in a bottle with a sprinkler top, and setting the bottle in a dish of warm water, then sprinkling the liquid on the skin while warm and rubbing immediately, a sense of soothing is experienced. In addition to this, a few drops of rose water added to the alcohol will take away the unpleasant odour.

Make a short shoe-bag with four pockets stitched on, and tie this to the side of the back portion of the bed. Into one pocket might be put toilet articles, while glasses, note-book, pencil, scissors, handkerchiefs, and many other useful things might be accom modated in the others. This can be made a real joy and comfort.

A simple device that enables partially helpless old people to turn in bed, or even pull themselves up to a sitting position, is the following. Take new, stout, cotton cloth. Fasten strong strips securely to either side of the bed frame. Make a good knot, easy to hold, in the end of each strip. The strips should be long enough to reach to the centre of the bed. When not in use, the knots may be pushed up under the pillow.

A bottle of picric acid solution obtainable from any chemist should always be kept in the first-aid box. If applied immediately to a burn of any description it eases the pain and in practically every case prevents the formation of a blister.

This is a greyish coloured clay, usually sold in powder form. Very useful for removing greasy dirt and stains when drycleaning materials, or from wood, etc. Specially refined, it makes safe and valuable dusting powder for toilet purposes.

A mixture of two parts glycerine and one part lemon-juice makes an excellent cleansing lotion for the skin. Apply it sparingly, and rub well into the hands. Glycerine may also be used for loosening round glass stoppers in bottles when they cannot be removed by any other means. Apply it with a paint brush around the top of the stopper. It will gradually soak between the two surfaces and facilitate the removal of the stopper. If this is very persistent, the bottle should be inverted and placed in a small egg-cup or jar of glycerine and left for several days.

An efficient and inexpensive lotion for preserving the hands can be prepared by mixing together equal quantities of glycerine, milk, and methylated spirits. It is necessary to shake well in order to secure a proper admixture of the ingredients. The lotion should be rubbed well into the hands after washing in warm water-preferably before retiring for the night.

Linseed poultices that are of necessity made in a room distant from the patient are very likely to lose their heat. To prevent this, warm the mixing bowl and linseed meal in the oven before pouring on the boiling water, and carry to the patient between hot plates.

A salt sprinkler is not a usual bathroom furnishing, but it will find a place in every toilet cabinet once it is discovered how swiftly a shake of fine salt on the tooth brush removes the menacing bacterial film, which is so hard to keep off the best brushed teeth, leaving them polished and wholesome. This should not take the place of paste or powder, but merely used as an additional treatment every now and then.

Walking trips too often mean blistered heels, even when wellfitting shoes have been bought for the occasion. Padding of any sort is likely to wrinkle, and wool stockings, though helpful, are sometimes too hot. A woollen " heel piece " will ease the foot through the blistering period until it becomes naturally calloused. Knit a " heel piece," using soft 2-ply wool. Cast 48 stitches on four needles; make I inch of ribbing and then knit as if for a stocking for a inches; turn the heel, and after you are working again on four needles, knit z inches as if you were going to complete the foot; then knit I inch of ribbing and cast off. You have then a firm heel without the toe or leg. If this is worn under the stocking it will take the rub and save the heel without in any way altering the general fit of the shoe.
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Gather some sprays of beech leaves when they have become tinted with various shades of yellow, gold and orange. Varnish them on both sides, applying the varnish evenly with a small brush. When dry, their colouring will be enhanced and the leaves may be used for decoration purposes throughout the autumn and winter. If varnish is not available, the leaves should be placed flat on a thick layer of newspaper. A hot iron should then be rubbed on a lump of beeswax and quickly pressed on to the leaves, when they will be coated with a thin film of wax.
In order to retain the shape of the leaves it is a good plan to place the spread between sheets of paper under a carpet for a few days before varnishing or waxing them.

Cotton-wool used for decorative purposes should first be soaked in a fairly strong solution of alum. After half an hour's immersion remove the cotton-wool, squeeze from it the surplus liquid, and place to dry, preferably in the fresh air. The alum remaining in the cotton-wool makes it very slow to ignite. It is, of course, possible to buy fire-proof crepe paper, festoons and streamers in a very wide range of colours. These are not expensive, for festoons 4 inches wide and 10 feet long cost only 4 1/2d. each.

Red-berrred Solanums make a cheerful and brilliant decoration for winter days, but unfortunately the berries soon drop off. Anyone who possesses a garden with some small shrubs such as Veronicas could, with the help of some sealing-wax, make attractive and economical decorative plants. The tiny trees should be planted into flower-pots of suitable size. The berries are contrived from a stick of pillar-box red sealing-wax, and a piece of fine wire, about 1 1/2 inches long. First heat the wax very slightly over the flame of a candle or methylated-spirit lamp. When soft, pull, or cut off with moistened scissors, small pieces of equal size . when nearly set, roll the pieces to form round berries. Heat the wire and push into the wax, then warm the berry gently above the flame to melt it slightly; this improves the shape and gives a bright surface. Put into cold water to cool, and fix to the shrub by means of the wire. If the berries are made approximately the size of cherries, a comparatively small number produces a brilliant colour effect.

At Christmas-time, more than at any other, there are many who receive beautiful flowering and foliage plants as expressions of Christmas cheer, and doubtless there are many living in the cities who find that after a few days the plants wilt and droop, losing all their freshness and beauty. This is sometimes attributed to too much heat, but the more likely reason is that the air is excessively dry. The following will be found quite a good remedy. For each plant secure a small, cheap sponge, saturate it with water, and place it as nearly in the centre of the plant as possible. Keep the wet sponge always in the plant, and you will find that the leaves remain fresh and green.

These form a pretty decoration for the Easter table, as well as a novel and pleasing way of distributing the time-honoured egg. They are just tiny fir-trees hung with bright-coloured eggs, wee Easter hares and yellow, fluffy baby chicks.

The addition of a tablet of aspirin to a large vase of flowers will prolong their life. For smaller vases, half a tablet is sufficient. The flowers should be placed in a cool position at night. Where there is a mechanical refrigerator, the life of flowers will be lengthened if they are stored overnight in the least cool part.

An attractive and unusual bowl of greenery and flowers can be made at the cost of a little trouble as follows : Into the wire mesh of a rose bowl pack closely small pieces of sponge until it is quite covered. Thoroughly wet the sponge, and scatter into the crevices rice, rape, or bird seed, and a few dwarf nasturtium and tropolum seeds.
Fill the bowl itself half full of water, and put it in a dark place until the seeds begin to germinate, then bring out to the light and do not forget to keep the sponge always sufficiently moist.
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If you know the hole or crack from which the ants enter the house, sprinkle quicklime and pour boiling water down it. Keep all food in covered jars or tins, not in bags or open receptacles.
A useful killing powder for ants is made as follows � Calcium phosphate, 40 per cent. ; icing sugar, 20 per cent. ; and sodium fluoride, 40 per cent. Well mix and puff into the haunts of the ant with small bellows. Ants may be killed by thousands if their homes are searched out and a mixture of paraffin 70 parts, turpentine-oil 15 parts and refined birch tar oil 15 parts be sprayed or poured in.
The ant may also be exterminated in its home by using a tablespoonful of carbon bisulphide. This must not be inhaled, and as it is highly inflammable should not be used in a room with a fire or naked light.

In the case of ordinary dwellings where cockroaches are found persistently to congregate behind the wall-paper, the best plan is to remove the wall-paper altogether and use coloured distemper until the pest has vanished. Wooden floors and skirtings which afford retreats can be made untenable by the simple process of sprinkling and working into the crevices a mixture of equal parts of castor sugar and borax, or a powder composed of sodium fluoride 10 parts, ground rice 8 parts, and calcium phosphate 2 parts.

The life-history of the fly is briefly as follows. During the first warm days of March the survivors from last season, which have remained hidden in the crevices as flies, or have remained as cocoons in undisturbed dirt during the winter, begin to come out and air themselves on the window-panes in readiness for resumed activity. Incidentally, this is the best time to attack them, for they are then few in number and poor in vitality, and every female destroyed in March means some millions less to account for in August. A good plan is to spray probable breeding-places with a mixture composed of carbolic 5 parts, citronella oil 1 part, and paraffin oil 14 parts.
A room can be cleared of flies by tying a wine-glass, broken at the base of the stem-an object found in most houses-to a light pole, long enough to reach the ceiling. After sunset or in the early morning, when the flies are asleep on the ceiling, hold the glass half full of methylated spirits under the flies. The fumes will cause the flies to fall into the spirit, which kills them instantly. The spirit can then be poured off into a bottle and used over and over again.
Instead of putting meat and other food on open larder shelves, have part of the larder enclosed with wire gauze like a meat safe, and keep everything the flies are likely to attack under cover. This is much simpler and much more effective than having to put wire covers and pieces of muslin over food.

The furniture mite, to the naked eye, appears as a tiny whitish speck, and if appearing in great numbers is a cause of much annoyance to householders, particularly in damp houses. Any room in which the mite is found should be kept as dry as possible, and should be fumigated by burning about one pound of sulphur to each thousand cubic feet of air. The best method of doing this is to procure an object, such as an old iron tray, on which the sulphur should be placed over a pail of water. The apparatus should be so placed that there is no fear of fire, and the sulphur should then be set well alight-live cinders will be found a great help in this connection. All bright objects such as brass, gilt, etc., and furniture should be removed as well as all carpets and rugs. The latter should afterwards be removed and well beaten out of doors. Carbolic solution is an excellent treatment for floors and woodwork in rooms affected by the furniture mite.

The furniture beetle generally attacks unpolished seasoned, hardened wood. The following process is usually an effective method of extermination. Take the piece of infected furniture, saturate it with camphorated paraffin oil, and leave for several weeks. Then soak with a stain made from Vandyck brown powder dissolved in liquid ammonia. When thoroughly dry, treat with linseed oil, any surplus oil being removed later; finally expose to the light and air for as long a period as possible.

The use of efficient mouse-traps is not the only means of exterminating this pest. The utmost care should be taken to prevent the entry of field mice. Damaged ventilating gratings should be renewed or covered with fine mesh wire netting, and any other possible means of entry looked for. Mice often come into the house by small holes in the larder or in cupboards, particularly those under the stairs. Holes too large to be repaired easily with cement should first be filled with corks and then cemented. Worn linoleum or floorboards should be repaired or renewed. Conditions are made unpleasant for mice if cayenne pepper is sprinkled on shelves and near food. Special precautions should be taken that no food is left uncovered, and in houses that tend to be overrun with mice all foods should be stored in tin or wood containers, not in sacks or bags.
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These pests can be dealt with effectively by blowing into their haunts a powder composed of sodium fluoride 30 per cent., powdered borax 40 per cent., and pyrethrum powder 30 per cent. This is also a very effective insecticide for ridding places infested with a particularly disagreeable pest, the silverfish, which often haunts houses, and hotel kitchens.
A modification the powder is as follows: sodium fluoride 45 per cent., sugar 15 per cent., flour 15 per cent., borax 10 per cent., pyrethrum powder 15 per cent.

Wherever mosquitoes are found to be breeding in trees, the tree holes should be sprayed with a mixture of water 6o per cent., soft soap 15 per cent., eucalyptus oil 15 per cent., bicarbonate of soda 10 per cent. This preparation should be boiled and allowed to cool before using. The tree holes should then be filled in with pitch.
Finally, where mosquitoes are found to be breeding in a house, shed, or stable, the affected places should be cleared by spraying with a mixture of good carbolic 25 per cent., and paraffin oil 75 per cent. The rooms should be kept clear by spraying with a mixture of petrol 6 parts, lemongrass 1 pint, citronella oil z parts. This mixture is inflammable, and should not be sprayed in a room containing a fire or gas jets.

Carpets that have been stored away should be periodically examined, and if any traces of moth are found, a damp huckaback towel should be placed over the affected part, and well ironed with a very hot iron until dry. This will destroy moth eggs and maggots.

A useful spray for killing the red spider is made of the following Put 1/4 lb. quassia chips in z quarts of water, and soak all night, then boil for one hour; add hot water to make 5 gallons and while hot stir in z lb. soft soap carefully, and to each 100 parts of the mixture when strained off, add 3 1/5 oz. liver of sulphur.

Furniture which is sprayed every six months with a mixture composed of 93 per cent petrol, 4 per cent. linseed oil, and 3 per cent. citral, and then polished with soft rags, is improved in appearance and preserved from woodworm.

Winter woollies that are not required during the summer months can be kept safe from moths if they are packed in newspaper with, a few pieces of camphor or naphtha in each packet. The printer's ink on the newspapers repels moths. Instead of closing the packages with pins, which readily tear out, it is an excellent plan to use gummed paper-package tape. This fastens very securely and leaves no holes through which the moths can enter.
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When the water in aluminium hot-water bottles gets cold, great difficulty is often experienced in removing the screw stopper without damaging the ring or the screw thread. This is particularly the case when the stopper is made of a different metal from that composing the neck of the bottle, and is due to the fact that the neck becomes smaller on cooling and grips the screw very tightly. The difficulty may be overcome by holding the neck of the bottle for a few seconds in a cup of boiling water. The stopper can then be removed quite easily.

It can be used during the day as well as to help one to rise in the morning. When cooking, set it as a reminder to look at the oven or some particular saucepan. When you have just a short time to lie down and relax, set it at the time when you must go to work again. You will find rest more beneficial when you have not to worry about resting too long. You can also use your alarm clock when taking doses of medicine which come several hours apart. In many little ways the alarm clock can become quite a useful household article.

For making bath salts it is essential to choose well shaped and glassy soda crystals, or if specially good ones are desired, borax crystals may be used. The latter, however, are considerably more expensive.
The crystals may be coloured in two ways
1. By dissolving a spirit dye, such as metanil yellow, or eosine, in pure alcohol or directly in eau-de-Cologne, lavender water or some other scent dissolved in spirit. Only a very small amount of dye is required, and in most cases it is quite sufficient to use 25 per cent. If scent is not used for dissolving the dye a small amount of some essential oil, such as violet, lavender, etc., should be added. The mixture should then be sprayed on to the crystals by means of a scent spray, whilst the crystals are turned frequently with a spoon.
2. A cheaper way of making bath salts is by dissolving any good cold water dye in water and adding about one dessertspoonful of glycerine to one pint of the liquid, which should be sprayed over the crystals as above. The dyed crystals then need scenting by adding a few drops of some essential oil. In this case the crystals may need drying for a short time and should be spread out on a tray. They should not, however, be left for long as they would tend to lose water, and the outside of the crystals becomes powdery in appearance.

To render boots that have been out of use soft and pliable, wash them in warm water, and afterwards well rub castor-oil into the leather. They will not polish well until they have been in use and the heat of the foot has caused the oil to be thoroughly absorbed by the leather.

To save wasting the ends of candles, procure a cork which fits the candlestick tightly. (By rolling it under the feet for a few seconds the cork will become very pliable and slightly more compressed.) Drive a nail through the cork so that the pointed ends extends for about 1/2 inch to I inch. Then insert the cork with the point upwards into the candlestick, heat the end of the nail and press the candle on to it. By this device the candle can be burned completely and the candlestick does not become so corroded with wax.

Put sheets of newspaper between the underfelt and the carpet. This lengthens the life of the underfelt, keeps it clean and softens the tread. In small bedrooms where no underfelt is used, newspaper spread on the floor prevents the dust from working up between the floor boards and soiling the back of the carpet.

To prolong the life of coal scuttles glue an odd piece of linoleum, the thicker the better, and cut to fit, into the lower part of the scuttle. This reduces the wear considerably. For a circular or helmet-shaped coal-box, a piece of linoleum a few inches larger in circumference than the bottom of the scuttle should be obtained, and a few cuts made with a sharp knife around the edge.

As soon as the chimney is discovered to be on fire, close all windows and doors to exclude as much air as possible. Then throw a few handfuls of common salt on to the fire and hold up a piece of wet blanket in front of the fireplace.

When cloth garments become shiny rub over the worn part with fine emery paper. This frays the fibres slightly and raises the nap. Then finish by rubbing over with a warm silk duster. Another method is to rub over the shiny part with a piece of flannel dipped in turpentine.
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On those many occasions when a corkscrew cannot be found, a good plan is to use an ordinary screw. Screw this well into the cork, fix a piece of string to the head and with this pull the cork out.

When a cork seems to be too big for a bottle it can often be made to fit by soaking it in boiling water for a few minutes; or a small wedge-shaped piece may be cut out of one end of the cork. To prevent a cork slipping out when travelling, stick a strapping of adhesive paper over the top, or tie over it a piece of strong parchment-paper. To make a cork air-tight and water-tight, soak it in oil for five minutes before using it.

If the casement rod is difficult to pass through a curtain hem, as is sometimes the case with newly washed thin ones, put a large thimble on the end of the rod and it will slip along easily.

An economical device for saving the tops of curtains or portires is to sew on tabs about 2 inches long at regular intervals along the top. If these are sewn on the inside of the curtain and the furniture safety-pin passed through them (instead of through the material), the curtain is greatly saved from wear and tear.

To keep a door ajar, make a soft sausage-shaped pad about 8 inches in length and with a loop at each end. Slip the loops over the handle at each side of the door and the pad will prevent the door closing and also from slamming.

Draining-boards attached to the scullery sink are sometimes made of soft wood, and continual contact with water spoils their appearance. To overcome this difficulty and to make the boards more hard-wearing, linseed oil can be rubbed into the wood, followed by a coat of liquid-wax. This renders the surface impervious to moisture. From time to time, say every month a little extra wax should be applied.

If you are obliged to work in a steamy or moist atmosphere, rub your glasses with soap and then polish them : you will find that the moisture does not rest on them. This is a good tip for those who do cooking or laundry work.

This may be due to several causes-damp wood, insufficient paper, a damp chimney, or careless laying. If the chimney is damp, roll up a piece of newspaper loosely, light, and allow it to burn as it goes up the chimney, just as the fire is lighted. If it is a kitchen range, open the flue door at the back of the stove and put the lighted paper up ; this warms the chimney slightly and creates an upward draught. If the wood is damp and no dry wood is available, roll up some balls of newspaper rather tightly, and carefully arrange small pieces of coal on these. In quite a short time there will be a good fire. An old metal tray or sheet of metal held across the front of an open fire produces a good draught.

Non-inflammable flannelette loses its fire-resisting properties on being washed. This property may be restored by rinsing the material in warm water in which alum has been dissolved (I oz. to a gallon). Flannelette that is treated in this way acquires a measure of resistance to flames.
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When using the gas griller, always place a kettle or saucepan of water on the top; this utilises the top heat as well as that underneath. Use saucepans of a strong, light make, and broad and flat in shape. Be careful to keep them clean-outside as well as inside; sooty saucepans heat badly and require longer to boil.
When using the oven, try to arrange your cooking so as to fill all the shelves. It is a waste of gas to cook one dish only.
Do not boil a gallon of water if a pint will serve your purpose.
Do not turn a gas so high that it blazes round the sides of a kettle or saucepan. Do not light a burner sooner than is necessary, and always turn it off directly you have finished with it. Turn the gas off from the main pipe when you have finished using the stove, and always at night.
When making a milk pudding that requires long, slow cooking, put all the ingredients in a double boiler and cook for an hour or so over the simmering burner. Then turn the mixture into a greased pie-dish and brown in a hot oven or under the griller. This will save from two to three hours of oven gas, and the pudding will taste the same as one that has been baked a long time.

Gas-bills and cookery are both affected by the burner deficiency of your gas-range or your oil-stove. Be sure that the burner is adjusted to produce a clear blue flame in the gas-stove. Be sure that oil-burners have daily care. It takes but a moment. First don't cut the wicks; instead, wrap a piece of tissue paper about the forefinger and press down the carbon, making an even, smooth, compact wick surface. Brush off loose particles from wicks with a stiff lamp-brush to make them last a long time.

The provision of a wash-basin in the garage, even if it is only a portable one, does much to protect the paintwork of the house from greasy fingers and good towels from stains and dirt. When building is in progress, the cost incurred in installing a small fitted lavatory basin in the garage, providing this adjoins or is in close proximity to the house, is not great and is well worth while.

These articles may be improved if they are placed in a vessel of cold water, brought slowly to boiling-point, and then allowed to cool in the same water. This has a toughening effect on the material, and articles treated in this way are much less liable to crack when heat is applied to them.

First stretch them on a frame, then give the fingers and wearing parts one thin coat of enamel paint. When this is worn off, apply another coat. Do not paint the backs or wrists of the gloves, as this makes them harsh and too stiff. This has been proved to lengthen their life considerably.

To prolong the life of rubber gloves, sprinkle a little French chalk inside each time before use, and if a little is applied to the hands, it prevents the gloves sticking and consequently tearing when taken off.

Before doing any rough work, such as polishing stoves, or working with plants and handling soil, grease your hands well with cold cream. You will find that this precaution prevents dirt entering the small cracks in the surface skin.

Shred down 6 oz. of brown Windsor soap, and put into a jar with 1/2 gill of lemon juice. Stand the jar in a saucepan of water and let the contents melt over a slow fire. Then cool slightly and add 1/2 gill of eau-de-Cologne. Stir occasionally whilst cooling. Keep the mixture in a jar and apply it to the hands after washing.

To prevent hearthstone rubbing off when cleaning steps, hearths, etc, use some thin starch left over from washing day instead of clear water. Clean, and apply the hearthstone in the usual way.

A thick piece of cardboard about 24 by 18 inches in size covered tightly with oil-cloth. Use it to protect your table from saucepans or greasy dishes. It can be easily and quickly wiped clean and is preferable to pieces of paper, which soon become unsightly.

Place the knot on a table and gently hammer with a wooden article for a second or two, reversing the knot as you do so. Then insert the closed points of a small pair of scissors, gradually open them, and the knot will come untied.
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If gummed labels stick together, lay a thin piece of paper over them and press with a warm iron. They will soon come apart easily and the gum will be intact. Spread out to dry. The same applies to stamps or jam-pot covers.

The lids of boot and furniture polish tins are often difficult to remove. If the tin is placed on edge and rolled gently under the foot the lid will swing off. It is advisable to place a newspaper on the floor, in the event of a slight scrap of polish coming from the tin.

An excellent arrangement which prevents the edges and folds of sheets, towels, and other household linen from becoming discoloured whilst stored in the linen cupboard, is to fix glazed linen or old glazed blinds at the top of each shelf as close to the back of the cupboard as possible. Allow sufficient material to cover the back, the shelf and contents. Small brass hooks can be screwed into the wooden battens, and rings attached to both sides of the linen. This ensures the cover remaining in position. The glazed surface repels dust and moisture

Linen that is not in constant use should be wrapped in something blue to preserve the colour and prevent it becoming yellow. Blue paper will do, or part of an old sheet that has been previously dipped in a deep blue water.

Try using Woodruff, which is found growing in many old-fashioned gardens. Pick the leaves with the stalk and dry them in the sun in the same way as lavender is dried. Then sew them into longshaped muslin bags and tie with ribbon. Place these amongst the linen and they will give it the scent of new-mown hay Woodruff-scented linen is truly delightful.

To prevent mats slipping on a polished floor avoid the application of any polish underneath the mat, also, when polishing the floor, apply the wax sparingly, having first thinned it down with turps substitute to the consistency of thick cream. A new rubberised canvas is now obtainable which, being cut to fit and placed underneath the mat, prevents it from moving.
Another method of preventing coco-nut fibre doormats from slipping is to fix two or four small metal angle pieces into the floor, securing each by two screws. Two only are required when the bottom of the door frame prevents the mat slipping in one direction. The metal angle pieces can be made at home from quarter-brass or iron, for they are quite invisible when the mat is in position.

If a piece of linoleum the width of the mat, and from 6 to I2 inches long, be stitched to each end, it prevents small mats from curling and also prolongs their life. Holes should be bored in the linoleum with a gimlet and stitched to the mat with string. Oilcloth may be substituted for linoleum if the latter is not available. By this means cuttings of floor-cloth can be utilised to good advantage.

Parts of a mincing machine are very liable to be lost. To obviate this, make a bag from heavy crash or holland I2 inches wide by I8 inches long (or according to the size of your particular machine). Finish the top with a hem and draw-string. After the mincer has been washed and dried, put all parts into the bag and hang or place in the kitchen dresser. If a thin strip of wood be placed under the mincing machine, the table is not damaged or marked in any way when the machine is used.

A table having a top of white porcelain enamel proves invaluable in the nursery. The older children can use it when they want to use paints, crayons, or modelling clay; milk bottles, hot-water cans, etc., can be placed on it without damage, and when baby is bathed his basket, bath towel and soap can be accommodated. A wipe with a damp cloth is all that is required to keep it in spotless condition.
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It is quite as necessary to keep food in a dry pantry as it is to keep it in a cool one. Damp weather acts very quickly on food, and care is necessary to prevent waste. By placing a two-pound jar of lime in a small pantry or larder the air can be kept sweet and dry.
Jam is particularly affected by damp, and this treatment will be found useful, if a large pot has been opened and has to be kept for any length of time, as it is impossible to render it airtight by re-tying down.

To prevent patent leather cracking, rub in vaseline or olive oil when the shoes are new, and afterwards at regular intervals. Allow the oil time to penetrate the leather, and then rub off any surplus with a soft cloth, or dust will stick. The oiling is best done when the shoes are on trees.

An especially strong paste can be made by substituting rice-water for ordinary water when making a flour-and-water paste, as the starch in the rice-water makes the paste more adhesive.

All breast and back feathers should be collected and kept in a bag until a considerable quantity is amassed. Then wash them in hot soapy water to which a little soda has been added and rinse them well. Dry the feathers indoors, spread out on paper, or on a sheet spread on the floor. When nearly dry return them to the bag and hang them out in the sun, or in a warm kitchen. Or, if a thin muslin bag of good size is used, the feathers may be washed and dried inside it. These feathers make excellent stuffing for pillows and cushions.

To overcome the difficulty often encountered of water percolating the base of vases, jars, and bowls made of pottery that is either unglazed or insufficiently glazed, paint the outer surface of the bottom, when dry, with some petrifying liquid, or apply two coats of any good enamel.
To safeguard furniture from becoming marked by pots that may be slightly porous, cut two or three thicknesses of blotting paper the exact shape of the base of the vase; should a little moisture work through, the wood will not then be damaged.

Irons that are kept in a kitchen which tends to be damp or where much gas is used are liable to become rusty from week to week. A simple way of overcoming this difficulty is to rub the face and edge with the end of a candle before the iron is quite cold, this produces a thin film o� wax which prevents the rust forming, and it also uses up any candle ends.

When this is required for a bed, the amount may be reduced by buying just sufficient to cover the portion necessary. Then stitch on to the two sides a strip of calico the same width as the rubber, and use this for tucking under the mattress and keeping the rubber in position.

Do not forget to have a shelf put up to hold all cleaning materials such as soda, sand, scouring soap, and a disinfectant, etc. Also have a strip of wood with hooks to hang up mop, scrubbing-brush, vegetable-brush, bottle-brush, and dish-cloth. A sink can be kept much tidier if there is a definite place for all the cleaning appliances.

When, as frequently happens, a shoe polish becomes too dry for use, it can be made usable by moistening with a little turpentine. This will soften it, and excellent results will then be obtained.

If stoppers cannot be removed, apply glycerine, either by painting it round the top of the stopper or by placing the stopper and neck of the bottle in an eggcupful of glycerine. It may be necessary to leave the bottle in this position for several hours, or even for
a day or two, if it has become very firmly fixed. The glycerine works its way between the ground glass stopper and the neck of the bottle and so facilitates removal.
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The unsightly stains which appear on silk stockings, caused by the dye from leather shoes, may be prevented by cutting a piece of chamois or wash-leather to fit each shoe. After cutting out a piece of leather for the sole and around the heel, distribute a little glue to the edge of the chamois leather; place it in position in the shoe, taking care to stretch it tightly and so prevent any wrinkles. To ensure firm adherence, leave the shoes at least one day before wearing them.

In the summer months, it is often desired to put away such things as steel fire-irons and other steel articles. Well rub each piece over with vaseline. Wrap up tightly in newspaper and pack them into brown paper parcels. A further precaution is to place a saucer of quicklime in the` bottom of the cupboard. This must be renewed from time to time.

Silver that is not in use should be packed up, covered tightly, and stored in as airtight a place as possible. A simple way to store spoons and forks is to procure a strip of baize 8 in. deeper than the largest spoon. Place a strip of wide tape or braid down the centre. Stitch the tape securely at intervals of about I in. across its width. This forms slots into which the spoons and forks can be placed. The 4 inches of baize to spare at the top and bottom is folded over the silver, and the whole strip rolled up tightly and tied with tape in the same way as a tool outfit. This efficiently excludes air and prevents the silver from tarnishing. As an extra precaution, the roll can be wrapped tightly in several thicknesses of newspaper. Larger silver articles can be wrapped up in plenty of old linen, then newspaper, and packed in a tin box ; a tin trunk, tin hat box, or a biscuit tin answers the purpose quite well.

Paper stuck fast to the top of a polished table may be removed by putting a few drops of oil on to the table and rubbing it gently with a soft cloth.

To overcome the difficulty of tables and benches that are too low for comfortable work, door stops can be fixed on the bottom of each leg. If bought to match the table leg in colour, they form a neat finish to the leg, the table stands as solidly as before, and it is three inches higher. This simple contrivance does away with much back-aching, occasioned when cooking or ironing at a table too low for one's height.

When two tumblers become fixed one inside the other, pour cold water into the inner glass and stand the outer one in warm water. In this manner the inner glass contracts and the outer one expands so that they are easily separated.

Although telephones are very convenient in a bedroom, there are disadvantages in this arrangement in the case of severe illness, when the bell is apt to be disturbing. In the ordinary pattern telephone this noise can be effectively muffled by pushing some cotton wool under the gong upon which the hammer strikes. No harm is done and the wool is easily removed.

When travelling, it is very convenient to carry a thin board the size of the bottom of one's trunk, covered with felt and calico. This is most useful for ironing and pressing clothes.
When packing your case for a night on the train or boat, put in a tube of good shaving soap instead of the usual cake of soap. Besides not having a wet cake of soap to repack, you will find that the shaving soap lathers and cleanses so much better if the water is hard.

To ensure the safety of a valuable vase or ornament other than those made of glass, fill it up to the middle with ordinary sand. The weight of the sand will render the vase practically immune from all danger of being knocked over.
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Instead of using an open newspaper, as is commonly done, place the open end of the bag in a paper bag large enough to allow the vacuum bag to be shaken easily. This method eliminates much flying dust, and is especially helpful if the bag has to be emptied indoors.

Pictures hanging on walls inclined to be damp may be considerably protected by tacking a disc of cork at least } in. thick-cut from an ordinary bottle cork-to each of the lower comers of the frame. The pictures are thus held a little way from the wall and the air is able to circulate freely behind them.

Lamp wicks which are rather tight in the wick holder can be made to work more easily if one or two threads are pulled out at either end. This reduces the size slightly.

Put 1 gallon of rain-water into a pail and add to it I oz. powdered alum and I oz. sugar S stir these about, let them settle,
and then pour off the clear upper liquid. Put the material to be waterproofed into this and let it soak for 24 hours. Wring out, dry partially, and then mangle or press with a heavy iron. This treatment will not injure the material, and it will enable it to stand any amount of rain.

Clean the soles and welts of the boots and shoes of all mud and dust, well drying the soles. Warm about 2 Oz. castor oil and apply before a fire; use a small brush, working the oil well into the welts and soles, and taking care not to touch the uppers. When the oil has soaked in, give two further applications and stand the boots and shoes for twenty-four hours in a warm place. A single coat applied every ten days will ensure a watertight sole during the most inclement weather. Do not treat suede-leather shoes in this way.

The novice in waiting has sometimes difficulty in remembering at what side a dish ought to be handed or removed. The following rule will aid her memory. When a dish has to be offered or helped
from, take it to the left-hand side of the person sitting; otherwise put down and remove all dishes at the right-hand side. The only exception to this rule is in the serving of wine, which is offered at the right-hand side, where the glasses are naturally standing.

Whiting makes a very cheap polish for silver and plated articles, but there is always a risk of scratching the metal unless the whiting is first precipitated. To do this, tie some whiting loose in a muslin bag, place in a jug or basin; pour on plenty of cold water, agitate the bag of whiting, and allow the mixture to settle. Next morning pour off the clear water; the whiting which is left behind can either be dried in a warm place or left to dry slowly. Store in a covered jar or pot, and to use moisten with a little water or ammonia.

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